Factors that affect fertility (Social/ Cultural ( ( (In more developed…
Factors that affect
Infant mortality: is the number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per thousand lives per year.
In richer countries or more developed countries though, the fertility rate is much lower due to the fact there is an improved health care and a healthy water supply, hence less children die before the age of one.
In poor countries parents need to compensate for the expected death, the fertility rate is usually high in those countries, as healthcare is not as developed, plus there isn't healthy water or food, hence a lot of children die before reaching the age of one
In societies, particularly in Africa, their traditions demands high rates of reproduction. And the opinion of women has very little influence on the intense cultural demands.
In more developed societies, with education people are more aware of birth control, social awareness and more opportunity for employment and a wider choice of action generally, hence gender equality is a thing in those countries.
In a lot of countries, religion is also an important factor. E.g Muslim and Roman catholic religions oppose artificial birth control.
In less developed countries, fertility rates tend to be high so that more children are born, this happens as children are seen as an economic asset because of the work they do, and to also support their parents. In many poor countries there is little support to the elderly.
In much developed countries, economic growth allows greater spending on health, housing, nutrition and education, which is important in lowering mortality and in turn reducing fertility. Plus a study shows that in the U.K. couples are getting married 5 years later than a decade before, leading to a fall in the birth rate.
Many governments are trying to change their fertility rate in today's world, to reduce population growth, like China and India. But some countries like Russia are worried about their declining growth rate due to the fact birth rates have fallen below their death rate.
The impact of HIV/AIDS on communities
Family: AIDS is impoverishing entire families and many children and old people have to take on the role of carers. Adult deaths, especially of parents, often causes households to be dissolved.
Labour supply: The economically active population reduces as more people fall sick and are unable to work
infant and child mortality: mortality rates increase as AIDS can be passed from the mother to child
Education: with limited investment in education many young people are still unaware about how to avoid risk contracting AIDS/HIV. There's teachers who have HIV and UNICEF has warned that the deaths of these teachers will affect the future generations of low income-countries
Dependency ratio: Those who contract HIV are mainly in the economically active population.
Factors that affect
Life expectancy at birth - how many years a person is expected to live.
Diseases: HIV, AIDS...
Factors to such high rates of both are: Poverty and social instability that result in family disruption, High levels of other sexually transmitted infections, the low status of women, sexual violence, high mobility and ineffective leadership during critical periods in the epidemic's spread.
Poverty, poor access to health care, antibiotic resistance, changing human migration patterns, new infectious agents.