Overview of Multimedia Instruction (1- Extraneous (The Signaling …
Overview of Multimedia Instruction
The Signaling Principle
The rationale for the signaling principle is that people will learn more efficiently if the lesson is designed to call their attention to the important material in the lesson
and how it is organized.
The Redundancy Principle
The rationale is that with redundant presentations people may waste precious processing capacity by trying to reconcile the two verbal streams of information or may focus on the printed words rather than the relevant portions of the graphics
The Coherence Principle
The rationale for the coherence principle is that people are better able to focus on the
essential material if we eliminate extraneous material that could distract them.
The Spatial Contiguity Principle
The rationale is that spatial contiguity helps learners build connections between corresponding words and graphics.
The Temporal Contiguity Principle
The rationale is that temporal contiguity helps earners build connections between corresponding words and graphics.
The Pre-training Principle
The rationale is that pre-training allows students to focus on the causal connections in the multimedia explanation because they already know the names and characteristics of the key elements.
The Modality Principle
The rationale is that the modality principle allows learners to off-load some of the processing in the visual channel (i.e., the printed captions) onto the verbal channel, thereby freeing more capacity in the visual channel for processing the animation.
The Segmenting Principle
The rationale is that segmenting allows people to fully process one step in the process before having to move onto the next one.
The Embodiment Principle
Human-like action is intended to create a sense of social presence with the instructor.
The Voice Principle
Human voice is intended to prime a sense of social presence in learners.
The Personalization Principle
The rationale for this technique is that conversational style can prime a sense of social presence in the learner, which causes the learner to try harder to make sense of what the instructor is saying by engaging in appropriate cognitive processing during learning, leading to learningoutcomes that are better able to support problem-solving transfer.
The Image Principle
Having a static image may cause distraction that detracts
from any social benefits.