Civilization: Egypt & Mesopotamia (The Arts (Mesopotamians Writing: …
Civilization: Egypt & Mesopotamia
First examples date from around 3400 BCE (10)
The Epic of Gilgamesh (26)
The Pyramid Texts, which were funerary texts found inscribed in pyramids from the end of the fifth dynasty (28)
Construction of the pyramids (37)
Pottery/ jugs in which they drank BEER from
Funded the pyramids of Giza off of BEER; "Drunkards of Menkaure" (37)
To ensure all villagers were paying their dues, contributions to the common storehouse was recorded using small clay tokens (23). Priests had more control over economy since they could distruibtute rations they have collected (29) The lowest ranking members of the Sumerian temple workforce were issued a sila of beer a day (35)
"Administrators and craftsmen who did not work in the fields were the earliest humans to live entirely urban lives" (24)
Were taught to not be intoxicated in public
Formed their own form of writing shortly after the Sumerians; The pyramid texts (28)
Proverb taught says "He who posses much silver may be happy; he who posses much barley may be happy; but he who has nothing at all can sleep"(25)
To me this means, in order to have things like silver and barley must put in an immense amount go work and is constantly busy while one who has nothing has time to sleep and relax.
Were fine with intoxication in public
Th earliest written documents are Sumerian wage lists and tax receipts
First literate civilizations were the Sumerians of Mesopotamia and the ancient Egyptians.
Held political unification (25)
Major cities included Memphis and Thebes (25)
Egypt had the largest cities of the ancient world because there were less smaller and mid sized cities in their empire
required bappir and bread to be kept in government store-houses (17).
There was constant political and military upheaval (25)
Large cities included Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Nippur, Eridu (25)
Many mid sized cities
Able to fund public work to commission art and infrastructure.
Trade and exchange became dominant.
BEER was used as a form of currency
Since there were names for all beers it was thought that certain beers could make you feel better.
Used herbs and many types of plants to make potions and treatments
Beer was safer to drink than water because beer was boiled which killed off any bacteria or harmful parasites in the water since back then it was not purified.
Beer in religious ceremonies held special names (16)
Ra is the sun god who Egyptians most worshipped (28)
Hathor was the goddess of beer and brewing (28)
Regarded the consumption of bread and beer as one of the things that distinguished them from savages and made them fully human (26)
Believed the gods invented beer and showed humans how to make it. Which made it the appropriate to present as a religious offering (18)
The pyramids of Giza and burial sites (37)
Since priest collected wheat, sheep and textiles they could fund maintaence of irrigation systems and construct buildings by handing out rations of BEER (29)
-Discovered techniques to process and store grain (13)
Abandoned tokens in favor of pictograms that were scratched into wet clay (32)
-Named their beers things such as "the heavenly", "the joy bringer", "the plentiful", etc (16)
-Brewers of beer could control the taste and color by adding different amounts of bappir (16)
Founded on a surplus of cereal produced by organized farming on a massive scale (13)
Produced grain to make BEER (15)
Domestication of cereal grain led to the switch of a nomadic lifestyle to a settled lifestyle (10)
Encouraged to stay in one place for the first time
Fertile Crescent terrain was important to the sustainability of these new ways of life
Gruel was made which is grain that sits in water for a few days to undergo a process in which makes it "slightly fizzy and intoxicating",which we now know as beer (15)
Farming was adopted in order to maintain the supply of beer, because it was hard to go back to hunting and gathering since that is not as easy to control as vegetation (19)
WINE was not present until 870 BCE under the reign of King Ashurnasirpal (43)