Before industrialization, resources were scarce, and the recycling and reuse of products were practiced in small industries as well as in homes. Every material was reused and repaired rather than sending it to landfill. When the industrial- ization period came, recycling practices increased with ragpickers and street buyers, who collected and sold waste to recycling indus- tries for a living, and this practice is still continued in develop- ing nations. Resources again increased in the 1970s, when there was a hike in resource consumption due to increases in popula- tion, increases in the marketing of commodities, and changes in living standards (Marshall and Farahbakhsh 2013). The concept of waste hierarchy came into existence in the late 1970s, which again sparked the recycling and reuse of waste material. Waste hierarchy has introduced various concepts such as reusing, reducing, recy- cling, energy recovery, treatment, and finally disposal at a land- fill. The value of land as a resource was realized by governments when the size of landfills increased and there was a land shortage in small nations.