Chapter 1: Everything's an Argument (Why make arguments? (convince/…
Chapter 1: Everything's an Argument
Any text that expresses a point of view
written, spoken, visual, aural
make claims based on/ drawn from evidence
not yelling/ screaming, winner-take-all belittling
Why make arguments?
convince/ inform: accept something as true or reasonable
persuade- do more than agree/ MOVE!
make decision- examine options (pros and cons), argue through several alternatives
understand and explore- choose between two opposing views, realize that a problem exists and that I must understand it and respond constructively, Rogerian (win-win)
Occasions for argument
Deliberative (future): what will or should happen in the future; can be speculative (projections and reasoned guesses)
Forensic arguments (past): who did what for what reason with what liability
Ceremonial (epideictic, present): explore current values of society to affirm or challenge its widely-shared beliefs and core assumptions
Kinds of argument (based on kinds of issues they address)
Fact arguments: statement to be proved/ disproved with specific evidence/ testimony
Definition: how should we define . . .
Evaluation: present criteria and measure individual people, ideas against those standards
Proposal: response to "What do we do about it?"
Appealing to audiences: how do I win them over?
Ethos (credibility appeals): expertise, research, shared values)
Verizon commercial: science and girls
Logos (logic appeals): using reasons, evidence that embodies sound reason to support an argument
kairos: the most suitable and opportune place and time to make an argument; decide how to best make expertise and ethos work for a particular message aimed at specific audience
Pathos (emotional appeals): make people feel fear or say "Aww." to make our audience accept a claim