Introduction to Ethics :scales: (Deontology: Certain actions are always…
Introduction to Ethics :scales:
: Certain actions are always right or wrong regardless of the consequences. Deontologists find out what is right or wrong through reason, studying the world or by knowing the reason of God.
The Greek word 'Deon' means obligation, duty or rule.
Deontological theories tell you what duties you what you moral duties are.
Deontoligist believe that, of for example they have a duty not to lie, they have to follow through with that duty even if someone has to die because of it.
Pros :check: It is practical and simple since right is always right and wrong.
E.g. Aqauinas' natural law theory
Cons :green_cross: You can't kill one person to save lots of other people so could put people at risk and it eliminates the idea of self defence.
: The belief that there is only correct answer to every moral problem.
There is only one moral command that are true for all cultures, situations and time.
Things that are right or wrong cannot change.
Character Based Ethics
: The belief that your actions are dependent on your character. If a person is good and kind they will perform good and kind actions.
Aristotle's virtue ethics is a character based theory.
Concerned with 'what kind of person should I be?' than with 'what should I do?'.
Someone is good and kind if they develop goodness throughout their life time.
Pros :check: motivates us to work on ourselves and be better people, applies less pressure on us since humans naturally make mistakes, explains why there is evil in the world.
Cons :green_cross: we are left confused on what the virtues are, there is no definite answer on what is to be done in moral dilemmas. If there is no telos, what do these virtues lead us to?
: the belief that there are no universally moral principles and there is no one, fixed way to be moral.
Things are good or bad depending on the circumstances of the situation.
Each culture and person have their own, different values
: Looking at the consequences of actions.
Telos is Greek for end goal.
Looks at how to behave, what the end goal of ethics is and the purpose of actions and consequences.
Aquinas believed that each individual has their own telos based on their natural abilities. However, for humanity as a whole the telos is happiness on earth (or as Aquinas called it 'humans flourishing' and is also the vision of God.
Examples are the primary precepts are teleological because the end goal is complete union with God and Fletcher's Situation ethics..
Pros :check: Is consistent with scripture, for some people there is evidence in the world around us of a bigger plan (so it supports reason).
Cons :green_cross: The world is not perfect to everyone so disproves gods vision, and theories like evolution replace the need for a designer.