RPQ: Origins KU: Blue A&E: Purple Sources: Orange (What evidence…
How does science explain the origins of the universe and of life?
Kayleigh & Georgia
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The weaknesses of the scientific method are;
We cannot produce or factor all the conditions which may or may not change our results into our experiments.
We cannot be sure that we are replicating our experiment exact each time we repeat. For example the temperature of the room, the time of day etc.
We might affect the result of our experiments through human interpretation.
-Human beings are the ones who carry out experiments and humans are capable of error.
The scientific method consists of five factors;
Objectivity is an ideal scientists and scientific materialists strive to achieve. It is the very important principle that personal feelings, hopes, rivalries etc. should be put aside for the good of scientists advancement.
Scientists also have to try not be influenced by their culture, their society, common sense and even things such as who is funding their research and what other scientists might think of them.
Where is the evidence of evolution?
During the Enlightenment, many advances in scientific knowledge were discovered. One of these significant advances was our understanding of embryology.
Geological and Fossil Records
For many years, the Science of Geology has been creating a picture of our Earth's past. By inspecting the elements which make up the soil in layers deposited on top of one another, it is possible not only to see what kind of environment once existed, but even to date remains of ancient plants and animals found in these layers.
HOWEVER, less than 1% of life that has even existed on the planet has been fossilised. There are still major questions to our origins and much we do not know.
Factors of evolution:
(MORGAN for hw)
is the seasonal movements of organisms from one region to another. This can be a significant source of new gene variation - evolution.
is a change in DNA; the hereditary material of life. An organism's DNA affects its appearance, behaviour and physiology.
Common examples of mutations in humans are present in: blue eyes, red hair and attached earlobes.
Evolution: Rebecca and Morgan
In essence, evolution is the change in heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
There are a multitude of factors involved in the theory of evolution, such as: mutation, migration and natural selection.
WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE FOR THE BIG BANG?
-Cosmic background radiation.
-Identified by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson.
-Picked up background interference that seemed to be coming from every point in the universe and was measured at -270 degrees.
-Agreed to be left over 'heat' or radiation from the Big Bang still detectable in the universe today.
-Scientists can also theorise as to the general order these elements were created in by studying their properties and vice versa.
-For example some elements can only be created in super-hot conditions, which confirms the idea of great heat (cosmic background radiation) at the beginning of the Universe.
-Relative Abundance of Elements.
-The elements which do exist in the universe can be explained by the early conditions of the Big Bang.
The Big Bang is the rapid expansion of the universe; From a small singularity to the complex cosmos we know as 'space' today.
Measurements of the expansion rate of the universe date The Big Bang back to 13,000,000,000 years ago.
WHAT CAUSED THE BIG BANG?
Scientists use quantum physics to show how the universe could have created itself. We can only test the calculations so far and some people look to other explanations for what caused the big bang.
there must be some intelligence behind the big band because of the improbability of the universe.
-there were 34 undetermined variables at the beginning of the universe.
If any one variable had been fine tuned slightly differently we would not have this universe
It is this improbability with which any explanation for the origins of the universe has to contend
WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE FOR THE BIG BANG?
Identified by Edwin Hubble- light travelling from the furthest parts of the universe was shifted towards the red end of the spectrum.
Similar to the Doppler Effect, light stretches towards the red spectrum the further away it is. The pitch of sound drops the further away from you it gets.
This means that if objects are travelling away from each other today, then they must have been closer together in the past and even more importantly, must have come from the same dense point in the past.
Can religious and scientific views on origins be compatible?
"these are the words of god. They should be believed word for word. There are no errors in the bible. It should be taken literally. To not do would be wrong. "The Bible contains truths from God but it also contains writings from its time and human words. The task is to interpret the meaning of the words from the truth"
Young earth Christians/ Creationists reject modern scientific theories and ideas about Cosmology and the formation of the Earth. They believe that it is flawed science based on false assumptions and observation. For them Genesis is a simple historical account. This position is often just referred to as Creation science or Creationism. They believe that Earth is around 10,000 years old. Hence the Creationism. They believe believe that they can use scientific methods and theories to back up their position. They have also attempted to prove that the secular scientific view is flawed and wrong. Young Earth Creationists ideals and theories are mostly found among Protestant/Evangelical Christians particularly in the USA.
Theory 3: One of the main pieces of evidence of the old Earth is the fossil records. This is the layers of fossilised remains of animals and the way that they can be seen to evolve over millions of years. These fossils are found in the many strata of rocks in the ground. Some YEC believe that these can be explained in other ways. One popular way is to that all the layers of rock are actually not set down over millions of years but
One of the main pieces of evidence of the old earth is the fossil record. The is the layer of fossilised remains of animals and the way that they can be seen to evolve over millions of years. These fossils are found in the many strains of rocks in the ground.
Some YEC believe that these can be explained is other ways. One popular way is to say that all the layers of rocks were actually not set down over millions of years but in a few days during the Great Flood of genesis 6-8 The fossils are the remains of those animals that drowned. They can even explain why there is a pattern to the animals remains being in the rock layer
Ernest Lucas in his book "Can we believe Genesis today" points out that it is a contradiction to believe in the appearance of age idea and then given evidence. It means at worse god is a bad deceiver.
Some YEC also make the mistake of trying to add evidence of a young Earth this theory the two views are incompatible
Why would God want to do this anyay?
this also makes God a deceiver. He can appear to be nothing better than a dodgy antiques dealer "distressing" a modern table to make it look old
It means that we have to take the bible of face value and not God creation. The whole book is true and everything around you is an elaborate fake. That does not make sense to some people.
Another way that the liberal Christians reconcile their belief in god and modern scientific theories is to see design in the modern cosmogenic theories.
This is the view of many people, including many, many eminent scientists.
Some people are under the false idea that all scientists are atheists. This is not true. As we have seen, there are YEC, some of whom are leading scientists with high academic standards. These are many more that we would call liberal Christians who can see god in their science. Indeed, there are some who have come to believe in a god as a result of their science
For these people the evidence they claim to have found points to only one thing - a designer behind the universe.
Liberal Christians are at odds with both the atheist/scientific view and the young earthers creationist view. They have a few problems with believing in both the bible and many see God in the mechanism of the universe. They see evidence of God in the theories of science
Dr. Jeffrey Grant, he wrote a book called "Creation-Remarkable Evidence of God's Design in which he spoke of his theories"
In his books, Dr. Grant does not discount the big bang theory. Instead, he uses the theory to point to evidence of god. He also shows that a belief in Big Bang does not contradict the bible.
Dr. Jefferey lists many phenomena that he believes are indications of a design in the universe. These include:
-The gravitation force in the universe has to be just right.
-The universe's "fine tuning". This is that everything has had to be just right for life and universe to exit.
-The distance of the Earth from the sun is just to exist.
-They point out that the main teachings of the two stories did not contradict one another but are teachings different religious truths.
-Some liberal Christians also point out that in the original Hebrew that the Genesis story was written it is actually a complex poem. This they believe is further proof that it was not to be taken as literally true.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of evidence/explanations?
What evidence does science use to support these explanations?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of evidence/explanations?
What evidence does religion use to support these explanations?
How does religion explain the origins of the universe and of life?
What occured? Genesis 1-3
Adam and Eve fall into temptation, eat the fruit from the tree of life, cast out from garden of eden
Genesis 3:12 "The man said, "The woman you put here with me-she gave me some fruit from the tree, and i ate it."
God makes earth in six days
"in the beginning god created the heavens and the earth"
God created Adam- First man. God makes Eve from Adams rib
Genesis 2:22 "Then the LORD God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man."
Genesis 2:7 "Then the lord god formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.
The truth is called "revelation" because it is seen to have been shown through the practise of the religion and word of God.
Religious Revelation is split into two sections.
General: these are truths that are revealed as God's real character and personality. He reveals this through his detail and intricacies in his creation of the natural world. This type of revelation is indirect and just goes to anyone and everyone.
The fact that we are able to question our existence and come to the conclusion that we are not real and are robots.
The universe is an example of general revelation, God created the world to be in order and to be beautiful.
"For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities- his eternal power and divine nature- have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse." Romans 1:20
Special: these are truths that are revealed through supernatural means. A lot of religious people see this as a way of God intervening into our lives and providing understanding of things we could not possibly work out by ourselves. This type of revelation is direct and goes to certain groups or individuals.
"And He said, " hear my words: if there is a prophet among you, I the LORD make myself known to him in a vision, I speak with him in a dream."" Numbers 12:6
" The fair way of conducting a dispute is to exhibit, one by one, the arguments of your opponent, and with each argument, the precise and specific answer you are able to make."
“Let's say you're walking around and you find a watch on the ground. As you examine it, you marvel at the intricately complex interweaving of its parts, a means to an end. Surely you wouldn't think this marvel would have come about by itself. The watch must have a maker. Just as the watch has such complex means to an end, so does nature to a much greater extent. Just look at the complexity of the human eye. Thus we must conclude that nature has a maker too.”
― William Paley
If there is a designer, it doesnt mean its the Christian God
David Hume suggests that many man-made things need a team of people to make them. WHy not a team of Gods ?
Design still tells us nothing about the designer.
Nature is far from perfect:
-Deformities, illness, predators/prey relationship
-Events in life seem to be down to chance e.g.
-Life requires a certain amount of pain and
suffering i.e. child birth, death, etc.
WIlliam paley ( 1743-1805 ) wrote a book , Natural Theology (1802). In it he put forward a story to support his teleological argument.
His Anology -
1) A watch discovered on a heath.
2) The watch could not have come about by accident (unlike a rock or stone)
3) The existence of the watch is proof of watchmaker.
4) The universe is intricate in its design (e.g. molecular structure of ice, the position of the earth from the sun ... etc.)
5) The universe could not come about by accident.
6) The universe itself is proof of an intelligent designer (god)
The universe and man-made object share three qualities :
The teleological argument is the argument for the existance of God from the evidence of order, and hence design, in nature.
Teleos - Greek, meaning end or outcome of something.
Other Creation Stories
its getting sister spooky !!!