Chapter 4: Carbon and The Molecular Diversity of Life (The Study of Carbon…
Chapter 4: Carbon and The Molecular Diversity of Life
The Study of Carbon
Experiment: Proved the existence of abiotic synthesis of organic compounds.
Def. Organic Chemistry: The study of Organic compounds.
Def. Organic Compound: Any compound that contains Carbon
Carbon: The chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Versatility of Carbon
Due to Carbon's ability to form up to four bonds, this allows for the formation of an endless variety of organic molecules.
Variations of Carbon
Carbon and it's frequent partners are the building blocks that code the structure of living molecules.
Determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms.
Def. Carbon chains: The skeletal structure of most organic molecules, that can vary in size and shape.
Def. Hydrocarbon: An Organic molecule consisting of only Carbon and Hydrogen.
Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release large amounts of energy.
Def. Isomer: Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures an properties.
Structural Isomer - Different covalent arrangement of their atoms
Cis-Trans Isomer - The same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangement.
Enantiomers - Mirror image of each other
Enantiomers are important in the medical industry as two enantionmers of a drug may have different effects.
The different effects of enantiomers shows that organisms are sensitive to even subtle variations in molecules.
Chemical Groups and Molecular Function
Def. Function Groups: A Specific configuration of atoms, attached to the carbon skeleton, and is directly involved with chemical reactions.
Seven Functional Groups
Def. ATP: (Adenosine Triphosphate) A molecule of Adenosine followed by a string of three Phosphate groups. It stores the potential to react with water that then releases energy usable by a cell.