Care of specific conditions (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease…
Care of specific conditions
Persistently raised blood pressure
obese, high salt intake, lack of exercise, stress, diet low in vitamin D, smoking
old age, obesity, family history,smoking, insulin resistance, increased activity of renin angiotensin sysyems
there is hyperkinetic circulation in which the wear and tear of blood vessels is increaesd this leads to hardening of vessesls and loss of elasticity which lead to increased cardiac work and cardiac output. To maintain this increased cardiac output the heart enlarges and the myocardium outgrow its blood supply leading to ischaemia.
lifestyle modifacation, diuretics,beta adrenergic blocking agents, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers
This is a group of metabolic disorders characterised by elevated blood glucose levels resulting from inadequate insulin action
genetic factors, obesity, diet, lifestyle
This occurs as a result of insulin deficiency of ineffective insulin. in insulin deficiency the pancreas produce little or no insulin. whereas in ineffective insulin the pancreas produces enough or excessive insulin but the the sensitivity of target cells to insulin is decreased.Glucose and amino acid uptake to the bloodstream fails , levels of free fatty acids in the blood are elevated. Ingestion of carbohydrates worsens the situation because these are metabolised into glucose which the liver and skeletal muscles are unable to utilise. Glucose levels in the blood rise until the kidneys are unable to cope with reabsorbing the glucose in the glomerular filtrate resulting in glycosuria
polyuria, polyphagia, polydispia
55-65% carbohydrates, 12-20% protein, 20-30% fat, refined and complex sugars should be avoided, complex carbohydrates such as bread, cereals should be encouraged, limkt alcohol intake to one glass of wine, increase fluid intake
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
This is a condition characterised by persistent resistance to airflow.
Smoking, environmental irritants
irritating chemicals, chronic lung infection mostly TB, allergy related conditions
difficulty in breathing, chronic cough, poor appetite, weight loss
following exposure to irritating stimulus immune cells in the tracheobronchial tree, such as mast cells , basophils, and macrophages are activated once activated these cells release chemical mediators that cause constriction of the bronchial smooth muscle and increase capillary permeability in the airways producing bronchospasms. repeated exposure to the irritating stimulus produces a chronic inflammatory reaction to the lungs characterised by thickening of the mucous membrane and the production of thick tenacious secretions.
avoidance of environmental triggers such as pollens, house dust, and air pollution.
stress management can reduce attacks
beta-two agonist such as salbutamol
A convulsion or fit it is often a symptom of an underlying disease.
Trauma such as birth injuries,
congenital defects of the central nervous system
In epilepsy, a spontaneous electrical discharge occurs from a group of neurons, referred to as a seizure focus. Seizure activity may involve the entire brain. The specific clinical manifestations associated with a seizure depend on the position of the seizure focus and the extent to which secondary recruitment occurs
abnormal motor activity
ensure patency of the airway
force the jaws open with a hard object
place the patient in a lateral position