Kohlberg's Moral Development (Level 1: Pre-conventional (Stage 1:…
Kohlberg's Moral Development
Level 1: Pre-conventional
Stage 1: Obedience/Punishment
It is "
", lacking recognition that others' points of view are different from one's own
The worse the punishment for the act is, the more "bad" the act is perceived to be
individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves
"How can I avoid punishment"
Stage 2: Self Interest
actions at this stage have the purpose of serving the individual's own needs or interests.
"Paying for a benefit"
"What's in it for me?"
Level 3: Post-Conventional
Stage 6: Universal ethical principles
moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles.
Looking beyond oneself and look at international norms
Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice. Thus break unjust laws
Stage 5: Social contract orientation
"the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts.
the world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights, and values
Level 2: Conventional
Stage 4: Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
Law and order morality
"when someone violates the law, it is morally wrong"
Obligations and duties to uphold laws and rules
Stage 3: Interpersonal accord and conformity
Judge morality action by evaluating consequences in terms of persons relationship(respect and gratitude)
Desire to maintain rules and authority
try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations