Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development (Level 3: Post Conventional -…
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 3: Post Conventional
- Morality is defined in more abstract principles. People may believe that some laws are unjust and live by their own ethical principles.
Stage 6: Universal Principles
People choose values that they feel are right, and make sure not to violate them
Laws are valid only if they are just
Moral reasoning is based on abstract concepts
Like: Equality, Dignity, Respect, etc.
Stage 5: Social Contract
Place importance on the "greater good"
Majority decision and inevitable compromise
Laws are regarded as social contracts instead of rigid rules
World is viewed as holding different opinions, rights, and values.
All views/perspectives should be mutually respected
Level 2: Conventional
- Sense of morality is tied to personal and societal relationships. Children continue to accept rules of authority figures, and a rule's appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned.
Stage 3: Interpersonal Concordance
Emphasis is placed on good behavior and being "nice" to others
Children want the approval of others
"Good boy, Nice girl"
Stage 4: Law & Order
Most people in society are in this stage.
Obeying the rules is valuable and important
"If one person disobeys the rules, everyone would"
Have the obligation to uphold the law
Rules are seen as the same for everyone and fairness is rarely questioned
Children blindly accept rules because of their importance in a working society
Level 1: Pre-conventional
- Sense of morality is controlled and children accept rules made by parents and teachers. They focus on external consequences their actions.
Stage 1: Obedience & Punishment
An action is perceived as wrong because the perpetrator got punished.
The worse the punishment the worse the action.
Focuses on a child's desire to avoid punishment.
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist
A child only does a chore when his/her parent gives an incentive
Limited interest in the needs of others
"What's in it for me?"
Right behavior is defined in what's in their best interest.