Metabolic disease of the bone: osteoporosis (Risk factors (Genetic,…
Metabolic disease of the bone: osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder characterised by general reduction in the skeletal bone mass and a susceptibility to fractures. In osteoporosis, the rate of bone resorption is more rapid than the rate of bone formation.
Long term calcium deficiency, especially in postmenopausal women where oestrogen levels also decrease
Intake of caffeine
Intake of alcohol
Low intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet
Early menopausal and oestrogen deficiency
Assessment and common findings
There maybe a family history of pathological fractures especially at old age
Bone x-rays show reduced density with wedging and collapse of vertebrae.
A fracture with no history of trauma is also indicative of osteoporosis.
Specialised X-rays(bone densitometry) can confirm the presence of bone porosity.
Loss of height
Includes teaching the patient about the necessity for a diet rich in calcium and other trace elements such as phosphorus and magnesium. Regular weight- bearing exercise should also be encouraged.
Include replacement of oestrogen in post-menopausal women.
Calcium supplements will also be prescribed. This should be taken prophylactically after the age of 35 years.
Check and record vital signs
Give analgesics for pain relief as prescribed
Nurse the patient in a comfortable position