IT context & process Groups (A Systems View of PM (What is a…
IT context & process
Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle
A project life cycle is a
collection of project phases that defines:
–What work will be performed in each phase.
–What deliverable will be produced and when.
–Who is involved in each phase.
–How management will control and approve work produced in each phase.
■ A deliverable is a product or service produced or provided as part of a project
The Importance of Project Phases and Management Reviews
A project should successfully pass through each of the project phases in order to continue on to the next.
The Context of
The nature of IT projects
Characteristics of IT project team members
The Context of IT Projects
■ IT projects can be very diverse in terms of size, complexity, products produced, application area, and resource requirements.
■ IT project team members often have diverse backgrounds and skill sets.
■ T projects use diverse technologies that change rapidly. Even within one technology area, people must be highly specialized
Project Management Process Groups
A processis a series of actions directed toward a particular result ■
•Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes ■
•The project management process groups include ■
–Monitoring and controlling processes
Mapping the Process Groups to the Knowledge Areas
You can map the main activities of each PM process group into the nine ■ knowledge areas by using the PMBOK Guide 2004
Note that there are activities from each knowledge area under the planning ■ process group
All initiating activities are part of the project integration management ■ knowledge area
A Systems View
■ Project managers must take time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders.
■ Using the four frames of organizations can help you meet stakeholder needs and expectations.
■ Senior executives and top management are very important stakeholders
The importance of top management commitment
■ Secure adequate resources.
■ Get approval for unique project needs in a timely manner
■ Receive cooperation from people throughout the organization
■ Learn how to be better leaders
The three-sphere model for systems management
The need for organizational commitment to IT
■ If the organization has a negative attitude toward IT, it will be difficult for an IT project to succeed.
■ Having a Chief Information Officer (CIO) at a high level in the organization helps IT projects.
■ Assigning non-IT people to IT projects also encourages more commitment
What is a systems approach?
View things as systems, which are interacting components that work within an environment to fulfill some purpose.
Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems.
The term systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a holistic and analytical approach to solving complex problems
The need for organizational standards
■ The use of standard forms and software for project management.
■ The development and use of guidelines for writing project plans or providing status information.
■ The creation of a project management office or center of excellence
Process Groups and Knowledge Areas