ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY CHANGES IN ELDERLY (Eyes - (The lens stiffens,…
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY CHANGES IN ELDERLY
-cells age because they are programmed to do so. older cells function less well.
Brain and Nervous System
- As cells are lost, new connections are made between the remaining nerve cells.
- the kidneys tend to becomes smaller because the number of cells decreases. less blood flows through the kidneys.
-How well organs function depends on how well the cells within them function.
Bones and Joints
- bones become less dense and more likely to break.
The lens stiffens, making focusing on close objects harder.
The lens becomes denser, making seeing in dim light harder.
The pupil reacts more slowly to changes in light.
The lens yellows, changing the way colors are perceived.
The number of nerve cells decrease, impairing depth perception.
-Most changes in hearing are probably due as much to noise exposure as to aging
Mouth and Nose
-as people age the ability to taste and smell starts to gradually diminish.
As people age, taste buds on the tongue decrease in sensitivity
-The skin tends to become thinner, less elastic, drier, and finely wrinkled.
Heart and Blood Vessels
The heart and blood vessels become stiffer.
-The muscles used in breathing, such as the diaphragm, tend to weaken.
- the digestive system is less affected by aging than most other parts of the body
Muscles and Body fats
- there is a decrease in the muscle tone , decrease is cause by decreasing levels of growth hormone which stimulates growthg
- the cells of the immune system act more slowly
- the levels and activity of some hormones produced by endocrine glands decreases
The eyes produce less fluid, making them feel dry.