musculoskeletal system Nursing assessment (physical assessment (gait (. …
musculoskeletal system Nursing assessment
pain, tenderness, tightness, and abnormal sensations. The nurse assesses and documents this information
Most patients with diseases and traumatic conditions or disorders of muscles, bones, and joints experience pain. Bone pain is characteristically described as a dull, deep ache that is “boring” in nature
The patient may describe paresthesias, which are burning, tingling sensations or numbness.these sensations may be caused by pressure on nerves or by circulatory impairment.
Soft tissue swelling or direct trauma to these structures can impair their function.
. When a limping motion is noted, it is most frequently caused by painful weight bearing. In such instances, the patient can usually pinpoint the area of discomfort, thus guiding further examination.
Gait is assessed by having the patient walk away from the examiner for a short distance
The examiner observes the patient’s gait for smoothness and rhythm. Any unsteadiness or irregular movements (frequently noted in elderly patients) are considered abnormal.
The bony skeleton is assessed for deformities and alignment. Symmetric parts of the body are compared. Abnormal bony growths due to bone tumors may be observed. Shortened extremities, amputations, and body parts that are not in anatomic alignment are noted.
The articular system is evaluated by noting range of motion, deformity, stability, and nodular formation
. Range of motion is evaluated both actively (the joint is moved by the muscles surrounding the joint) and passively (the joint is moved by the examiner
. Palpation of the skin can reveal whether any areas are warmer, suggesting increased perfusion or infection, or cooler, suggesting decreased perfusion, and whether edema is present.
when assessing the musculoskeletal system, the skin is inspected for edema, temperature, and color
Cuts, bruises, skin color, and evidence of decreased circulation or infection can inﬂuence nursing management of musculoskeletal conditions.
muscle strength and size
The muscular system is assessed by noting the patient’s ability to change position, muscular strength and coordination, and the size of individual muscles.
It is important for the nurse to perform frequent neurovascular assessments of patients with musculoskeletal disorders (especially of those with fractures) because of the risk of tissue and nerve damage
Function can be permanently lost if the anoxic situation continues for longer than 6 hours