Patho CH13 Respiratory (Cont.) Infectious Diseases (Epiglottitis …
Patho CH13 Respiratory (Cont.)
More than 200 possible causative agents
Spread through respiratory droplets
Handwashing and respiratory hygiene important in prevention
Secondary bacterial infections may occur.
Usually caused by streptococci
Purulent exudate; systemic signs, such as fever
Usually bacterial infection
Analgesics for headache and pain
Course of antibiotics often required to eradicate infection
Common viral infection, particularly in children
Common causative organism
Parainfluenza viruses and adenoviruses
Infection usually self-limited
Common in children ages 3 to 7 years
Usually caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B
Rapid onset; fever and sore throat
Child sits in tripod position.
Drooling and difficulty swallowing
Swelling of the larynx, supraglottic area, and epiglottis
May obstruct airway
Spasm of larynx common if area is touched with instruments
Oxygen and antimicrobial therapy
Three groups of influenza viruses
Type A (most prevalent), types B and C
Viruses constantly mutate.
Sudden, acute onset with fever, marked fatigue, aching pain in the body
May also cause viral pneumonia
Mild case of influenza may be complicated by secondary bacterial pneumonia.
Commonly, deaths in flu epidemics result from pneumonia.
Symptomatic and supportive
Antiviral drugs: Amantadine, Zanamivir, Oseltamivir
Prevention is highly recommended.
Vaccination is recommended for most individuals.
Caused by group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus (S. pyogenes)
Symptoms: Typical “strawberry” tongue
Fever, sore throat
Chills, vomiting, abdominal pain, malaise
Caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Transmitted by oral droplet
Virus causes necrosis, inflammation in small bronchi and bronchioles.
Signs: Wheezing and dyspnea, rapid shallow respirations, cough, rales, chest retractions, fever, malaise
Supportive and symptomatic
Different types...Classification of pneumonias based on:
Viral, bacterial, fungal
Anatomical location of infection
Throughout both lungs, or consolidated in one lobe
Changes in interstitial tissue, alveolar septae, alveoli