TESTICULAR AND SCROTAL DISORDERS (HYDROCELE (definition-is a non-tender…
TESTICULAR AND SCROTAL DISORDERS
definition-is a non-tender fluid-mass in the tunica vaginalis of the scrotum
risk factors-injury or inflammation to the scrotum.infection including STI.
causes-hydrocele caused by an infection in the testicle or in the small coiled tube at the back of each testicle
assessment findings and symptoms- it present as a soft intrascrotal mass that is translucent to light. it may cause discomfort and embarrassment when walking.swelling of one or both testicles.
health education-patient must be given information about STIs and HIV/AIDS how these can be prevent.
management-surgical intervention may be required.scrotum must be supported with bandage, a scrotal support or commercial suspender.
pathophysiology-normal testis surrounded by a smooth protective tissue sac. small amount of lubricating fluid to allow the testis to move freely. excess fluid normally drains away into the vein of the scrotum
definition-occurs when a testicle is mobile and the spermatic cord twists, cutting off the blood supply
risk factors-age, previous testicular torsion, family history of testiculer torsion
causes-the cause is not known, but it is associated with strain or lifting heavy objects
assessment findings and symptoms-nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, swelling of the scrotum,sudden and severe pain in the scrotum,fever , frequent urination
management-surgical intervention is required,bed rest, given a scrotal support and prescribed analgesic will be administered to control pain
pathophysiology-the twists on the spermatic cord, interrupting its blood supply.sudden swelling of the scrotum,severe pain,and nausea and vomiting may be experience. torsion causes ischaemia to the testes. leading to necrosis
health education-patient should be taught how to do an abdominal and scrotal examination and important of attend follow up.
UNDESCENDED TESTES,ECTOPIC TESTES AND RETRACTILE TESTES
definition-are testes that remain in the abdomen or the groin instead of descending into the scrotum. retractile testes have descended into the scrotum but can move back into the inguinal canal easily as a reflex response to stimulation
health education-patient should be taught how to do an abdominal and scrotal examination.should be taught how to do testicular self examination, not only to detect undescended testes, but also for early recognition of tumours
risk factors-premature birth, family history, alcohol use by mother during pregnancy,cigarette smoking by mother,low birth weight
causes- combination of genetics,maternal health and other environmental factors
assessment findings and symptoms-not seeing or feeling a testicle where would expect to be in the scrotum. abdominal pain during fetal develpoment
pathophysiology-testes descend to the scrotum normally before birth.cryptorchid testis remains too high or in an abnormal location, which prevent its normal function.spontaneous descent occur, cause cryptorchidism.
management- hormone treatment involves the infection of human chorionic gonadotropin.to prevent dislodgement of the testis from the scrotum by use of toy that must be straddled such as bicycle for two weeks
definition- is the dilation and varicosity of the pampiniform plexus within the scrotum
pathophysiology-varicocele arises slowly and is usually located in the left side,because the spermatic vein enters the renal vein that cause back pain. right-handed varicocele is suggestive of tumours and retroperitoneal fibrosis
risk factors-family history,HIV infection,body size, carcinoma in situ of the testicle
causes-varicocele forms when the valves inside the veins in the cord prevent blood from flowing properly, the result backup causes the veins to widen, this damage to the testicle.
management-scrotal support must be provided tp alleviate congestion and to encourage venous return. surgery may be performed if there is severe pain.
assessment finding and symptoms-mass the tortuous veins above and posterior to the testicles.
health education-patient should be taught how to do an abdominal and scrotal examination and the important of attend follow up