Intro to Business Research (criteria of good research (The procedure must…
Intro to Business Research
systematic inquiry of information to solve management dilemma
costs and benefits of potential actions
to understand problems
types of research studies
explanatory- theory based answering Why and How qns
Reporting-account/summary of data
Predictive-theory based attempt to predict future events
practical problem solving,
managerial decision making
theoretical, to develop theories
limited application to real world problems,
used to guide applied research
criteria of good research
The procedure must be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the process.
Problems and purpose clearly defined
Research design must be thoroughly planned
High Ethical standards applied
Data adequately analysed
Findings and conclusion clearly explained
Research experience reflected
Positivism - external, objective, observable phenomenon Reduce to simplicity, research should be independent quantitative.
hypothesizing laws and deducing what kind of observations support or reject the predictions/hypotheses and if the observations can be generalised.
Interpretivism- researcher is part of what is being researched. Driven by interest. Qualitative. developing ideas inducted from the observed, to understand subjective realities and offer interpretative explanations.
Realism- objective. Observable phenomena. Focus on explaining within context. Like positivism, it accepts the existence of a reality independent of human beliefs and behaviour. However, it also concedes that understanding people and their behaviour requires acknowledgement of the subjectivity inherent in humans.
Thus research requires the identification of external factors describing general forces and processes influencing humans as well as the investigation of how people interpret and give meaning to the setting they are situated in.
Deductive reasoning- general to start with and moving to specific. Top down approach. Moves from theory to data. Collection of quantitative data. Theories already exist- collect data to test, improve or build upon the existing theories.
Inductive- bottom up reasoning. Gathering meaning of events. Observation-draw hypothesis. To induce something is to draw a conclusion from one or more particular facts or pieces of evidence.
Independent (IV) cause the dependent (DV)
A moderating/interaction variable (MV) is believed to have a significant contributory or contingent effect on the original IV-DV relationship.
Control variables (CV) (e.g. gender, age, ethnicity) ensure that our results are not biased by not including them. irrelevant for the investigation- do not believe that it affects the relationship between the IV and DV.
A hypothesis is a statement relating two variables, while the theory provides the rationale why those two variables are related.