Classification of materials (Metals (Ferrous (A metal containing mostly…
Classification of materials
A metal containing mostly iron and carbon.
Ferrous metals are magnetic and will rust
Low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, cast iron
A metal that does not contain iron.
Non-ferrous metals are not magnetic ad do not rust.
Aluminium, copper, zinc silver, gold, titanium, tin
A metal made of two or more metals, or combining two or more elements, one of which must be a metal.
Alloys can also be sub classified ferrous alloys or non-ferrous alloys
Ferrous alloys: stainless steel, die steel (tool steel)
Non-ferrous alloys: bronze, brass, duralumin, pewter
A wood from broad-leafed (deciduous) trees.
These trees are generally slow growing and lose their leaves in autumn
Oak, ash, mahogany, teak, birch, beech
A wood from a coniferous (cone bearing) tree.
These trees are generally fast growing and tend to be evergreen.
Pine, spruce, Douglas fir, redwood, cedar, larch
A man-made wood-based composite material.
Manufactured boards are available in much larger sizes than solid wood
Plywood, marine plywood, aeroply, flexible plywood, chipboard, MDF
A material which can be repeatedly reheated and reshaped, allowing it to e recycled after its initial use.
Thermoplastics have long linear chain molecules held by Van der Walls forces
Low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), acrylonitile butadiene styrene (ABS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), nylon, rigid and flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
A material which when heated undergoes a chemical change whereby the molecules form rigid cross links.
Thermosetting polymers cannot be reheated and reshaped, even at very high temperatures
Urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), polyester resin, epoxy resin
A material which at room temperate can be deformed under presser and then upon release of the pressure,will return to its original shape.
Elastomers have weak bonds which allow them to stretch easily. They can be stretched repeatedly and upon immediate release
of the stretch, will return with force to the original length
Natural rubber, polybutadiene, neoprene, silicone
Papers and boards
Papers and boards can be described as compliant materials, meaning that they can be scored, folded and cut with basic tooling to form items such as nets for packaging
Layout paper, cartridge paper, tracing paper, bleed proof paper, treated paper, watercolour paper, corrugated card, bleached card, mount board, duplex card, foil backe dand laminated card, metal effect card, moulded paper pulp
Composite: A Material comprised of two or more different materials, resulting in a material with enhanced properties.
Composites can be:
fibre based (CFRP, GRP, fibre concrete)
particle based (tungsten carbide, concrete)
sheet based (aluminium composite board, engineered wood, e.g. glulam
Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP), glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP)< tungsten carbide, aluminium composite board, concrete, fibre cement, engineered woo, e.g. glulam
A material whose physical properties change in response to an input or change om the environment, such as electricity, pressure, temperature or light
Shape memory alloys (SMA), thermochromatic pigment, thermochromatic film, phosphorescent pigment, photochromic pigment, electroilluminescent wire, piezo electric material
a material developed through the invention of new or improved processes, e.g. as a result of man-made materials or human intervention.
Modern materials are not 'smart materials' because they do not react to external change
Kevlar, precious metal clay (PMC), high density modelling foam, polymorph