Unit One Introduction to Biopsychology (Lesson 2 Historical Roots of…
Introduction to Biopsychology
study of nervous system of humans in controlled conditions
focused on behaviours in organisms
what a person does (overt)
can be observed
internal- emotions, thoughts
external- movement, etc
helps us survive (when helpful behaviors
find food, changing environments
inherited= genes (natural) hardwired, useful to ancestors
learned= experienced (nurtured), from environmental challenges
any change that can be objectively measured
levels of analysis:
groups of people
function of behavior:
humans evolved in hot, dry and now are around world
2 kinds of evolution: learned, genetic
surviving in uncertain world
detecting changes in world
integrating important information
responding adaptively determined by environment
regulation of behavior:
function of specialized cells;
detect what happens
transduction (transforming energies)
makes neural signals- all same
information processing from different places
message comes from neurons to make behavioral response
study of neurons from ions to organisms
microscopic, several feet long
basic functional unit of nervous system
transmits information through nervous system
stores information in memory (synapses of neurons)
regulates homeostasis- steady internal state (heart rate, respiration, muscle tension,
neural activity leads to behavior
altering neural behavior changes behavior, everything we do depends on neural activity
neuroscience- focuses on how the nervous system works with other things, and works with other fields of study
Historical Roots of Biopsychology
major issues in psychology
nature v nurture (experience v genetics) Both always involved
free will v determinism (choice or forced?) Are you doing what you are doing due to your choice?
mind/brain relationship - what is the seat of consciousness?
: mind and brain fundamentally different, brain is physical, mind is nonphysical soul
Rene Descartes- interactionalism- is the mind the pineal gland?
Sir John Eccles says supplemental motor area = soul/ point of interaction
: one form of reality, mind/brain cannot exist by themselves, mind dies with the brain, identity position= operation of brain= mental events, humans behave according to physical laws/ mechanistic. BUT how would a physical system produce thoughts and mental states? MODERN SCIENTISTS ARE MONISTS
never ending problem between understanding the brain- there's no way to see the mind.
- what is it? we assume everyone has one without knowing, could it exist in computers? in other body parts? is it just brain connections? no answer.
: opening up the skull- used up to 10,000 years ago, open up head to "release spirits"/ rocks
(1596-1650)- mechanical statues represent humans, fluid would come up with movement of pineal gland to produce mind/movement
: removed frog leg, hooked up electrical simulation, leg moved, discontinued Descartes' theory because no fluids/brain
: phrenology(bumps on head represent things about person, nothing to do with brain below, just looking at skull, correct about localization of function- parts of brain do specific things
: different sensations go to different brain parts, specific nerve energies- wires connect part of brain to produce sensations/ little crossover
Hermann von Helmholtz
: conduction speed of impulse, measured time to have dog move away, reflexes are not immediate, depend on action potential/synapse time to move across.
Fritsch & Hitzig
: electrical stimulation of brain to produce muscle movement
: localization of language function in left hemisphere, could understand but not speak (caused by stroke)
: stick went thru head & survived, didn't feel pain, after he was a different person, limbic system no longer controlled by frontal lobe, no connection, became uncontrollable.
- reticular theory- large interconnected net of nervous system / web
these two won nobel prize together, though they had differing views, Santiago used Golgi's theory
Santiago Ramon y Gagul
- neuron doctrine, nervous system made of discrete cells
Potential Brain States
- number of brain states exceeds number of elementary particles in the known universe.
- signalling between neurons through chemical neurotransmitters, took frog hearts, put chemicals onto other heart, heart slowed.
Evolution, Brain, Behavior
Anatomy of the Brain
medial geniculate nucleus
lateral geniculate nucleus