CARE OF SPECIFIC CONDTIONS (Cardiovascular Disease: ( Two aspirins daily…
CARE OF SPECIFIC CONDTIONS
Two aspirins daily as an anti-platelet therapy for treating patients at risk for stroke or myocardial infarction.
Observe patients for bleeding such as nose bleeds and occult blood in stools.
Patients with atrial fibrillation should be treated with warfarin and careful monitoring of PT or INR.
Position the patient in a semi-Fowler's position to prevent or assist with shortness of breath.
Counselling and health education should be given to those that are developing stroke.
Reduce blood pressure by encouraging the patient to exercise, have a diet low in salt and relaxation techniques.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):
Establish a steady program of less strenuous exercises to strength patient's lungs.
Counsell and support the patient to cope with this disease.
Monitor patients oxygen saturation regularly.
Advise patients to use medications such as inhalers.
Degenerative Joint & Bone Disease:
Advice the patient to not strain themselves doing strenuous activities.
Advise the patient that surgical replacement of degenerative joints will improve their quality of life.
Ensure medications for normal replace and non-hormonal medications that improve bone mineral density.
Advise patients to take their medication for hormone replacement.
Reduction of weight, following a diet low in fat and carbohydrates and increase exercising.
Treat any infection that the patient might have as well as open wounds.
Regular monitoring of sugar levels and blood pressure.
Poor Hearing and Poor Vision:
Advise the patient to get their ears syringed to improve hearing
Encourage the patient to get their ears and eyes tested so that necessary hearing aids and glasses can be used.
Advise patients to use their ear and eye drops to clear ears and eyes.
Make sure patients are able to reach and access their fluids and advise patients and care givers on adequate amount of fluid intake.
Record the seriousness of the seizure and duration, so that the nurse can monitor if it is getting worse or not.
Nurse the patient in a cot bed to prevent falls.
Advise patients to clean their ears to remove access wax to assist with balance.
Advise the patient to not get up suddenly and walk after taking strong medications.
Identify possible risk factors that could lead to falls such as slippery floors.
Advise older patients about environmental hazards including inappropriate footwear.
Teach the patients how to get up after a fall and to call for assistance.
Ensure the patient has rails put in their bathrooms to assist with toilet usage and bathing.
Maintain adequate of fluids to prevent heat stroke.
Patients suffering from hypothermia should be rewarmed slowly with cardiac monitoring in place.
Controlled external warming using a space blanket and a warm electric blanket should be used with patients suffering from hypothermia.
Refer patients to physiotherapist to help them regain their walking skills.
Advise patients to use suitable walking aids to assist them also advise them to have safety handles in the bathroom and passage to prevent falls.
Advise the patient to rest and elevate their infected limbs, use moist wound care methods, observe for signs of infection and advise them on their diet and exercise.
Nausea & Associated Symptoms:
Nausea is most often caused by the use of medication, advise the patient to gargle their mouth after taking medication.
Regular monitoring of functional capacity of the patient as the efficiency of medication diminishes over time.
Physiotherapy will possibly assist the patient to become mobile again especially after being bedridden and having urinary incontinence and constipation.
Advise the patient to use aqueous cream rubbed in gently or warm water and soap with gentle drying.
In hospital regular position changes of the bedridden patient should be done.
Prevention of Incontinence:
Advise the patient to do pelvic floor exercises and bladder retraining should be done.
In hospital provide an indwelling catheter.
If the patient is unconscious nurse in a cot bed and also provide and indwelling catheter.
Identify the underlying cause of the stroke and educate the patient about the measures they can take to prevent a stoke from occurring again.
Provide support and councelling for the patient and family.
(Patient-Centered Care, 2012)