When the Europeans conquered Mexico, they received many new foods from the area including Chocolate, Maize, Beans, Chilli, Potato, Corn, Wheat, Grapes, Tomatoes, Banana, Pineapple and many more. There were also many foods that branched off of these. Following the time after these foods had been introduced, the European population doubled as a result of food availability and nutrition, also the demand in Europe for the exotic and tasteful foods increased significantly. The high amounts of calories were able to feed three times as many people in Europe and Africa. This helped in quantity and quality of their diet which lead to increased fertility, and for different civilisation's food variety and supply. The Europeans were eating more healthy and nutritious foods and the Americas foods had completely changed the food diets of many countries in the 16th century.
Long term effect-
For us today, if the Europeans had not successfully conquered and taken the Aztecs' foods, then we would not have cuisine such as Pizza in Italy, Potatoes in Ireland, Spicy Curries in India and many more. If we did not have these ingredients and food elements in our modern day diets then we would not have a very good energy supply for our body's to work and learn. Another long term benefit from these foods being introduced and the European exchange is that fewer people have starved since the new foods were discovered. Our food variety and nutrition supply also might not be as great and our diets might not be as healthy if the Europeans did not discover and introduce the foods to the rest of the world in the 16th century.