Energy Metabolism Respiration (Types of Respiration (Aerobic Respiration…
Energy Metabolism Respiration
Types of Respiration
Respiration of Lipids
Glycerol is changed into one of the intermediate products of glycolysis, so enters the cell respiration pathway. Fatty acids are changed in a series of reactions called beta-oxidation into acetyl CoA molecules, which enter cell metabolism at the Kreb's Cycle.
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Only occurs when RuBP Carboxlase adds oxygen rather than carbon dioxide to ribsose-1,5-bipihosphate resulting in one molecule of 3-phosphoglycerate and one phosphoglycolate
Produces amino acids
Wastes about 30% of energy trapped by photosynthesis
Pentos Phosphate Pathway
phosphorlyated five-carbon sugars (pentoses)
Heat Generating Respiration
During the citric acid cycle, glycolysis, and the mitochondrial electron transport small amounts of energy are lost as heat.
Some plants also generate heat
Plants that generate heat are:Voodoo Lily, and Skunk Cabbage
Skunk cabbage: Actually can melt snow and this helps reveal itself to pollinators
Symplocarpus foetidus scientific name for Skunk Cabbage
Voodoo Lily has inflorescence parts which causes it to become much warmer than the surrounding air causing amines and other chemicals to vaporize and diffuse as attractants for pollinators
Amorphophallus konjac scientific name for Voodoo Lily
Respiration that requires O2 as the terminal electron acceptor
O2 is abundant in most situations and the product of reduction is water
Animals and plants are obligate/strict aerobes,
use CO2 as their primary carbon source
Lithotrophic heterotrophs: get energy by oxidizing sulfur compounds
produces ATP and NADH, but when O2 is present the NADH migrates to electron carriers that oxidize it to NAD+ allowing glycolysis to continue
NADH produced by glycolysis cannot cross the mitochondrial inner membrane and donate electrons directly to the electron transport chain because the inner membrane is impermeable to such large molecules.
SO a series of chemical reactions shuttles reducing power across the membrane
The citric acid cycle
Also known as the Krebs Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid cycle
Carbon dioxide and acetyl are made
Benefit is to make more ATP
citric acid cycle](
When O2 is not available and an alternative electron acceptor must be used.
Also known as Fermentation
Glucose is broken down by a metabolic pathway called glycolysis or the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway
ATP phosphorylates glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, which is then converted to fructose-1,6-biphosphate, which breaks down into3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
obligate anaerobes, facultatively anaerobic
1,3-diphosphoglycerate is energetic enough that an enzyme can transfer one of its phosphate groups onto an ADP, converting it to ATP and changing the 1,3-diphosphoglycerate into 3-phosphoglycerate . A PROCESS CALLED SUBSTRATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION
Pyruvate and NADH react to form lactate which is the anion of lactic acid.
In plants and fungi, pyruvate is first converted to acetaldehyde
NADH reacts with that forming ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
: The process that breaks down complex carbon compounds into simpler molecules and simultaneously generates ATP
Carbo is Oxidized. It's oxidized state goes from 0+ to 4+ as electrons are removed by NAD+, which is then converted into NADP.
This process is opposite of photosynthesis, in which NADPH carries electrons to carbon, reducing it
The NADH generated by respiration is a good reducing agent but it is produced in too big of quantities for constructive purposes.
Plants use mostly NADPH from photosynthesis for their reductions, not NADH
Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain
NADH diffuses to membrane and passes electrons to a portion that has flavin mononucleotide bound to a cofactor
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Fermentation of Alcoholic beverages
Drinks that have an alcohol percentage above 20%
solution becomes toxic to the yeast and they die
ethanol must always be added to the solution to be distilled
the solution is heated which causes the alcohol to evaporate along with water and flavor profiles
Ethanol boils are 78 degrees celsius
Distillation can only raise the alcohol content to 191 proof which is 95.6%
Grain based: vodka, whiskey, Gin
80% corn abd rye and wheat may also be added
Yeast cells (Saccharomyces) ferment the glucose present in grapes and excrete the waste product ethanol
Naturally fermented wine has a max alcohol content of 14% at this point the yeast is killed
Red wine is made from the must (pulp) of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, which give the wine its color.
White wine is made by fermenting juice which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice; the skins are removed and play no further role.
Beer has 5.5% not because its yeast is more sensitive to the ethanol but because it is the legal limit.
Made by fermenting starchy cereal grains such as barely wheat corn or rice
barely beer is the most common
Barly has the greatest number of enzymes and converts starch to sugar more rapidly
part of the starch must be removed from the wheat before fermentation can occur
Corn syrup or potatoes are added because they are cheap resources for adding starch to the beer
Fermentation must be stopped artificially usually by heating the beer to kill the yeast.
Alcoholic beverages with alcohol contents higher than 14% have extra alcohol added or part of their water removed
Ethanol is considered a depressant
Environmental and Internal Factors
Greatly influences respiration in a plant
Increase in temperature of 10 degrees in the range of 5-25 degrees Celsius doubles the respiration rate
Respiration is the source of ATP for all parts of a cell other than chloroplast
All cells have different metabolic needs and functions
Lack of Oxygen
Not as active as animals
Oxygen concentrations causes variations in a cells access to oxygen
oxygen variability is higher in roots in well-drained soil
After rainfall oxygen is displaced by water (hypoxia) or there is no oxygen called (anoxia)
Energy Yield of Respiration
during aerobic glycolysis four molecules of ATP are sythesizied whereas either one or two ATPs must be used to initiate the process depending on what glucose was used
NADH+ H+ generated cannot be used for energy
Net result is two molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose fermented
Glycolysis:It provides 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH + 2H+.
Pyruvate Oxidation: It yields 2 NADH + 2H+ only.
Krebs Cycle: It gives 2 GTP molecules, 6 NADH+ 6H+ and 2 FADH2. Generally no distinction is made between ATP and GTP because GTP is changed into as ATP in the cytoplasm by an enzyme nucleoside di-phosphate kinase.
ETS: It produces 32 or 34 ATP molecules, and is the major source of energy for a cell.