Paper 2- Religion peace and conflict ( (12.6 - The consequences of modern…
Paper 2- Religion peace and conflict
12.12 - Conflict resolution and peacemaking
Catholic Church supports
the use of non-violent resistance in order to gain justice.
Many Christians believe that Jesus supported non-violent protest, as he said, ‘
Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you.
Martin Luther King
, a Baptist minister, used non-violent resistance in the USA to gain equal
rights for black people.
(a Hindu) successfully used non-violent resistance in his efforts to gain India’s independence in 1947.
Catholic organisations working for peace
Justice and Peace Commission
works in each Catholic diocese in England and Wales. It raises awareness of situations where people are deprived of their rights and needs, and campaigns against to nuclear weapons the arms trade.
works in over 50 countries. It aims to get involved at an early stage of a conflict to encourage people, in order to solve disputes peacefully and fairly, rather than use violence.
also believes in working for peace on a
(throughout the world).
are encouraged to help with
peacemaking within their family and the local community.
Biblical perspectives and Christian teaching
The Bible teaches that
living in harmony shows that God is present.
Catholic Church encourages everyone to work together
towards lasting peace built on mutual respect and trust.
Paul asks people to
help bring reconciliation
between Euodia and Syntyche.
teaches that an end to war will be a
sign of God's Kingdom
having come on earth, so
Christians should work to help solve conflicts.
12.11 - Torture, radicalisation and martyrdom
The Catholic Church opposes torture because...
does not allow it even in war.
denies the victim
their basic human rights.
Catholics see it as always
It views it as
"Torture which uses physical or moral
violence to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for the person and for human dignity"
Some people argue that using
– severe physical
or psychological pain – to
to prevent a greater wrong
may be justified.
suffering or death of a martyr
– does not include people who, for example, act as suicide bombers in the name of their religion.
is usually used to describe
Christians who have been persecuted and put to death for refusing to give up their beliefs.
Radicalisation and its prevention
tends to take place among
younger people who feel rejected by their society or religion.
Catholic Church focuses on mutual respect
, so it is concerned about
(adopting extreme views) as it can make people
unwilling to accept any alternative views.
12.10 - Terrorism
Terrorism in Britain
Examples of terrorism in Britain
Others say that they have a
distorted and inaccurate view of the world
and what God would want: their actions have been completely rejected by the religion they claim to represent.
Some people believe that terrorists are
motivated by their religion.
carried out attacks in London (2005), Glasgow (2007), and in London and Manchester in 2017.
(Irish Republican Army)
in Warrington (1993), London (1993), Manchester (1996) and Omagh (1998).
What is terrorism?
The violence is
usually against innocent civilians
and is usually designed to
and force authorities to give way to
In order to further their beliefs, some
individuals or groups
with the aim of
so that they are afraid to go about their normal daily lives.
Contemporary Catholic teachings
Pope Francis has said that it is
wrong to carry out acts of terrorism
in the name of God: ‘
Terrorism threatens, wounds, and kills indiscriminately; it is gravely against justice and charity.
resorted to violent terrorist attacks against the non-Jewish power that was
trying to force them to give up their religious beliefs and practices.
that without this action
Judaism might not have survived
and so in those circumstances these actions are
never to take vengeance
suggests that violence and terrorism is always wrong.
everyone should obey the authorities
as they have been put in charge by God.
12.9 - The role of religion in conflicts of the twenty-first century
The work of Catholic agencies
in Sierra Leone (1991– 2002),
CAFOD set up orphanages and rehabilitation programmes
to help children who had been forced to become child soldiers get back to a normal way of life.
provided food, water and shelter,
even where the
were themselves in
danger of being attacked.
fighting in Niger in 2015
, many people
their homes and were
living under trees.
Aid to the Church in Need
Aid to the Church in Need has
, blankets, medicine and food
both inside and outside Syria.
in Syria has
caused thousands to flee
; others have
lost their homes
The efforts of the Pope
Pope Francis organised a football match
in Rome’s Olympic stadium to
raise funds for children in need,
particularly those affected by war.
Pope Francis organised a meeting
of prayer between the
presidents of Israel and Palestine.
Pope Francis urged people to pray for peace
in eastern Ukraine, highlighting the number of civilian
12.8 - Pacifism
Christians views on pacifism
Jesus taught that it is
much better to try to bring peace than to use violence
‘all who take the sword will perish by the sword.’
‘Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God.’
‘if anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other also.’
to solve disputes.
all negotiations fail
war is necessary
bring about justice for the weak or to
defend against attack
It is the
of a country to
A country that isn’t prepared to fight is prepared to fight is
seen as weak.
Peace can only be built on
if one party isn’t prepared to defend itself.
always wrong to fight
, even in self defence.
War causes such
that problems need to be
more peaceful, humane means.
Jesus taught that
peace is better than violence.
War never solves problems.
Some people have a
religious or moral
in the sanctity of life.
Teachings of the Catholic Church
The Church strives for peace but does not preach radical pacifism.
War never again! Never again war!
’ but he has
that force may be necessary in self-
in this age which boasts of its atomic power, it no longer makes sense to maintain that war is a fit instrument with which to repair the violation of justice.
everyone and every nation has the right to protect itself
, but emphasises the need to use
non violent approaches
to resolve conflicts...
12.7 - Religion as a reason for violence and war
Religion and belief as a reason for war and violence
Causes for war include...
To gain resources
To gain land
that the use of violence is
very rarely justified.
rarely one reason for war
, although some people claim that difference in religion is one of the major causes.
authorised by various Popes
, who believed it to be
Aimed to free Jerusalem
and the Holy Land from the control of the Muslim Turks.
fought by Christians
who believed that if they died in battle they would go
straight to heaven.
Took place between the
eleventh and fifteenth centuries.
It is believed that
those who take part
with great authority, such as the Pope.
War and violence in the Old Testament
Exodus 21:24 says, ‘
eye for eye, tooth for tooth
’ which is often taken as meaning that it is
acceptable to return violence with violence.
When it was written it was an
attempt to reduce punishment
to only the individuals involved –
not the families or tribes
, as was often the case at this time.
themselves in the
could be argued
that they were a
people fighting for their survival.
12.6 - The consequences of modern warfare
providing asylum is the humane thing to do
and that refugees can
to the economy of the country to which they move.
Some people argue
that Britain has
not got enough resources
lots of refugees or asylum seekers
Some people believe that it is
acceptable to use powerful destructive weapons
as, although they may cause more civilian deaths and environmental damage, they
can end wars more quickly.
Catechism of the Catholic Church 2313
states that ‘
Non combatants, wounded soldiers, and prisoners must be respected and treated humanely.
teaches that it is
for civilians (non combatants) to be
; instead, they should be
: Using chemical weapons can affect the vegetation for
decades after a war has ended.
: Popes have condemned the use of practices that ruin the environment such as the use of chemical weapons.
: Modern warfare can do great damage to the environment – huge areas of land can be destroyed.
: As stewards of the earth, people have a responsibility to limit any damage done to the environment.
Many people are
unable to take in a refugee family
, and instead
to a charity that helps refugees.
"We cannot insist too much on the duty of giving foreigners a hospitable reception. It is a duty imposed by human solidarity and by Christian charity … This must be done … that they may be shielded from feelings of loneliness, distress and despair that would sap their strength."
refugees should be welcomed and protected
by all countries. The Church actively campaigns for
flee their country with
in finding somewhere
Many end up living in refugee
12.5 - Nuclear war and weapons of mass destruction
and others call for
and may support organisations for such as the
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND).
non-religious people and some Christians oppose WMDs
for similar reasons to those given by the Catholic Church.
Someone needs to
start the process
Britain should do this.
Some people, including some
, believe that it is
right for Britain to have nuclear weapons.
Having nuclear weapons
deters aggressive attacks
from other countries.
weapons is important for self-defence
, particularly when other countries have them.
Catholic attitudes to nuclear war and weapons of mass destruction
Pope John XXIII's commandments
Pacem in Terris
The warning of Pope Pius XII stills rings in our ears: ‘Nothing is lost by peace; everything may be lost by war.’"
… Nuclear weapons must be banned …
Hence justice, right reason, and the recognition of man’s dignity cry out insistently for a cessation to the arms race
Consequently people are living in the grip of constant fear …
help they need …
manufactured … involving a vast outlay of intellectual and material resources … while other countries lack the
"We are deeply distressed to see the enormous stocks of armaments that have been, and continue to be,
Five main reasons why the Catholic Church opposes the use of nuclear weapons and WMDs (weapons of mass destruction)
of these weapons
increases tension and fear
, making the world less safe.
that may follow.
The cost of
these weapons is great; it
governments from spending to
the possibility of success is
; there are no '
victors, only victims
12.4 - The just war theory
Background to the just war theory
Jesus said, '
The one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one
After 370 CE, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Christians faced the choice of either fighting or allowing the empire to be overrun by invaders.
The early Christians refused to fight in wars as they didn't believe they had the right to take someone else's life.
Contrasting views on the just war theory
Opinions in British society
It is so much better if war can be avoided by
, including the UN, to avoid conflict.
should only go to war when there's been a
major abuse of power
to Britain's security.
only support a war that meets the just war criteria
, as only then can it be justified.
just war theory is dangerous
as it could be used to defend the concept of war. It's
Conditions for a just war
Just war criteria include...
It must be the
, having tried to solve the dispute.
It must be a
should not be attacked.
There must be
reasonable chance of winning
and bringing lasting
should be used.
It must be
declared by a legitimate authority.
12.3 - Justice
Violent protest as a response to injustice - contrasting views
Some people will
join others in protests
which they accept may lead to violence, if they believe it is the
to get the
to take notice.
Church took part in protests
which became violent against the
government in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2015.
supported violent protests
movement in the early 20th century.
agree with the UK law that it's
, and may protest against
believe that violent protest is an
way to create change, and
may result in loss of life.
They may take part in a
to make their point.
The importance of justice
teaches that it's
that everyone should be treated
can cause people to lose their sense of
. It can
deny people dignity
because they have been treated unfairly.
Old Testament prophet Amos
taught that creating justice is more
than ensuring that worship is done correctly.
Righteous anger as a response to injustice
Many Christians believe that righteous anger is acceptable
because it can be
into positive action.
Jesus showed righteous anger
when he drove the sellers from the Temple as they had turned it into a market place.
12.2 - Forgiveness and reconciliation
A stronger relationship.
Appreciation and acceptance of each other.
An opportunity to live without fear.
A more peaceful future.
Respect for others' religions and beliefs.
Opportunities to learn from the past.
Reconciliation leads to the peace that Jesus prayed for at the Last Supper.
"Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you"
Reconciliation is the restoring of harmony after relationships have broken down.
Biblical teachings on forgiveness
The message of the parable of the Unforgiving Servant is that God only forgives those who are willing to forgive others.
Jesus forgave Peter for denying him.
Lord's prayer 'forgive us our debts' teaching that Christians must forgive others.
Peter asked how many times he should forgive his brother, 'As many as seven times?', Jesus replied 'seventy-seven times' meaning he should always forgive.
Forgiveness is showing grace and mercy, and pardoning someone for what they have done wrong.
"Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing"
12.1 - Biblical perspectives on violence and bullying
Bullying is a destructive form of violence.
published on social media or the internet can bring more distress.
; leave a person with a
sense of powerlessness.
Ideas about violence in the Bible
Cain was jealous of his brother, God said to him 'sin is lurking at the door', Cain's angry thoughts led to violence and he plotted to kill his brother.
Violence is a rejection of the ideals God wants for the world.
In the Old Testament, it was said that murderers would be judged, but Jesus said that those who are angry will also receive judgement.
Jesus taught that the seeds of
need to be