Penile disorders (Epispadias and Hypospadias (Risk factors (Exposure to…
Epispadias and Hypospadias
s a rare conjenital condition in which the urethral meatus opens dorsally on the penis
Is a congenital condition in which the urethra meatus opens on the ventral side of the penis
Opening of the urethra at a location other than the tip of the penis
Downward curve of the penis
Abnormal spraying during urination
Exposure to certain substances during pregnancy.
Maternal age over 35
The true cause of bladder exstrophy has not been elucidated.
Cloacal exstrophy is a much more severe abnormality, with significant involvement of the GI tract and the CNS
assess the curve of the penice
Asses the opening of the urethra and the location
Urethra is repositioned
Between 6 and 12 of age
providing relief of pain and discomfort
decreasing parental anxiety
Avoid exposure to toxic substances during pregnancy
Adder and Hobson, 1998).
pain or bleeding in the genital area
wart-like lump on the penis
liquid discharges from the penis
Penile cancer is the growth of malignant cells on the external skin and in the tissues of the penis.
Smoking and other tobacco use
UV light treatment of psoriasis
Not being circumcised
Phimosis and smegma
psychologically devastating to the patient and often presents a challenge to the urologist
Penile squamous cell carcinoma occurs
Metastasis, occurs with carcinoma when the diagnosis is delayed, is usually lethal.
This is a slow-growing cancer in its early stages,
Cancer interferes with voiding or erectile function, patients do not complain until pain or a discharge from the cancer occurs.
Medication causes denudation of the malignant areas while preserving the skin
A clinical trial of laser therapy.
partial or total penectomy
External or internal radiation therapy.
Give anagesics as prescribed
Give topical cream as prescribed
Encourage the patient to share his concerns and feelings
Report fever , sore throat and cold
Educate about change of life style
Educateabout prescribed medications and catheter
Approach this topic from a nonjudgmental perspective
Be aware of depression and anxiety from the patient
develop a trusting rapport during the health history interview
palpate the inguinal lymph nodes.
Bleeker, M. C. G.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Horenblas, S.; Dillner, J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M. (2008). "Penile cancer: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention". World Journal of Urology. 27 (2): 141–150.
A surgical procedure where by the foreskin is removed living the glans penis uncovored .
Government is negotiating with custodians to perform this legally
Government is bringing up safety for males of SA
Legal practice will reduce the mortality rate for males in SA
It is perfomed intraditional schools
It is usually done by traditional surgeons
Parents should be provided with information to make good choices of Western procedure Circumcision
Lissauer T, Clayden G (October 2011). Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics, Fourth edition. Elsevier. pp. 352–353. ISBN 978-0-7234-3565-5