Why did Pope Urban II call the First Crusade in 1095? (To help the…
Why did Pope Urban II call the First Crusade in 1095?
To export feudal anarchy to the Middle East, allowing aggressive knights (e.g the Normans to conquer new land without killing Christians
to heal the Great Schism of 1054.
In urban's sppech he said that the latins needed to protect the Byzantines - emphasises the bond shared against the Muslim threat.
Did Emperor Alexius and Pope Urban want to unite this schism as they would now ally together?/
because of the split of the roman empire- into western roman empire and eastern roman empire (Byzantium empire)
divide between east (Byzantines) and west (franks)- so break between catholic church and east orthodox church. In catholic church- pope = head of church. But in eastern orthodox- so Constantinople (Byzantium)- the emperor saw himself as head.
to defend against Islamic aggression and atrocities
urban, in his speech dehumized the muslims to savages- urban described how Turks were "slaughtering and capturing many, destroying churches"- true- in 1064 5000 Christian pilgrims killed by Seljuk Turks and 1067 cathedral destroyed in 1067. In 1071 turks gradually took Anatolia.
and said that theh Christians in the holy land were being abused and exploited by muslims - with rich being stripped of their wealth by taxes and poor being tortured. said christaisns under muslim rule being reduced to 'slavery',- using very graphic imagery - but could argue that urban exaggerated and manipulated this to get publics attention - this was a catalyst to the crusading cause- but I dont think this was the main CAUSE of the crusade
jerusalem was ruled by muslims and this had been the case since the 7th century
In pope urban's speech at clemont- he said "the holy city of Jerusalem was now in the hands of the Muslims" - so shows that this may have been a motivation.
To help the Byzantines with their crisis
1074- Pope Gregory VII states his intention to lead an army to help eastern Christians against the seljuk Turks
BUT- in 1080- Greg offers remission of all sins for knights fighting to 'restore rightful byzantine emperor.
Emperor Alexius sent byzantium ambassadors to the council of Piacenza where urban was to get a support of military aid- which triggers urban's response
Financial Crisis- Alexius had relied on the treasures he had paid his allies; henry IV, Malik Shah and the Venetians
loss of land:1050s: Normans had taken southern Italy - Robert Guiscard. (wanted land due to population decline- part of the feudal anarchy. in 1050s: the seljuk Turks had expanded into Armenia. in 1050s- tribes of the Pecheneg turks crossed river to get to Balkans but in 1064- 5000 Christian pilgrims were attacked. in 1071 the Turks took Anatolia- Turkish warlords took control. In 1078 the seljuk Turks took Nicaea (city in Anatolia- central for trade). loss of fertile land.
political crisis: they had the battle of Manzikert in 1071- between the Byzantine Emperor Romanos and the Seljuk Turks. The Byzantines were defeated and Romanos was captured. many of the Turks were pleased as they saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor. this lead to a civil war- no one to defend Anatolia.
to increase his own power and create his own army- REVISE
the authority of the papacy
The Donation of Constantine- document that was suppose ably written by Constantine saying the pope had temporal, secular authority- but it was forged. maybe pope urban wants to prove that the document was correct- he wants to show his secular power.
the petrine primacy- where pope ubran will see himself as being appointed by God due to petrine primacy and the apostolic succession.
The Investiture Controversy- where Pope Gregory said that King Henry IV could not appoint his won cardinal, instead the laity will. However, Henry disobeyed this and appointed his own Bishop. Pope Gregory excommunicated him and made him apologise in the snow- the Apology at Canossa. Henry then appointed his own anti- pope, Clemence and attacked Rome and besieged it. However, then pope urban ii trapped him and his troops? REVISE
Why did the Pope reply to Alexius's appeal to only rescue Anatolia with a huge army of crusaders and with the end goal to be Jerusalem? - did he to show his power and prove to the greek orthodox Christians that he was the head of all of Christendom and not the what the byzantines see as head- the patriarchs of the 5 major episcopal sees of the roman empire- Antioch, rome, Constantinople, Alexandria and jerusalem.