NGOs between the State and Networks (4 generations of NGOs D.Korten, 90…
NGOs between the State and Networks
as a part of the private sector, of socio-economic significance mainly, delivering services to the ppor cheaply, equitably, and efficiently..... Gerard Clark, 98
more effective than states at delivering .......
often, but not always, insufficiently political social service providers that essentially facilitate the ongoing privatization ...... depoliticizing and .....
4 generations of NGOs D.Korten, 90
First - Relief and Welfare
humanitarian, international voluntary action, established since WW II ex: org. the Red Cross,
Second - Community Development
formation of community councils; self-help
Third - Sustainable systems dev
grown out of frustration with 2nd gen strategies
comes out of realization that self-reliant village dev initiatives are likely to be sustained only so long
increasingly work with national agencies
facilitate local dev. action
Fourth- People's Mpvements
a broad, three-pronged vision of global change - global poverty, social disintegration and environmental destruction
more than 3million India only
yp to 10% of fundings go to NGOs
CBO and GROs
membership-based, locally autonomous
Distinguished by World Bank
since around the middle 90s
transnational non-gov entities
How do we account?
crisis of legitimacy
crisis of efficiency
Damages wrought by structural adjustment and changing strategies of donor which have meant that governments haven proven...
conditions imposed on developing countries by the IFIs to receive dev loans from the World Bank and the IMF. These included things like privatization of national industries, elimination of agricultural and food subsidies
a sizable portion of the wealthiest classes grew increasingly wealthy
Agents of Economic Dev???
structural adjustment programs SAP have eroded state capacity, more and more state functions have been taken up by NGOs
Agents of Democratizaiton
cut across ethnic/regional differences
leftist critics - 'undermine democracy, James Petras, 99' by taking local programs out of the hands of local people
limited in mobilizing movements
offering 9 times the salaris of the gov and often the states cannot compete
they reproduce inequalities
the emergence of 'jet-set'
Challenges, Atack, 99
pulled by multiple accountabilities
downwards to partners, beneficiaries and staff
upwards to their trustees and donors
difficulty of measuring effectiveness
poor coordination at national level, leading to substantial duplication of efforts