Malware and hacking strategies (Malware Protection: (It is better to…
Malware and hacking strategies
It is better to prevent than to cure.
Anti-malware software can stop malware before it does any damage.
OS should be regularly updated as known malware weaknesses get fixed from time to time.
Updates are announced for the user to accept or sometimes done automatically.
Browsers should be updated regularly.
Care should be taken with email attachments.
Should remember that malware can be brought by peer-to-peer file sharing and chat programs.
Unfamiliar websites should be visited with care.
malicious software that can be downloaded to a computer to gain illegal access.
• Viruses -attach to certain files, by copying themselves.
• Worms-exploit weaknesses in network security, similar to viruses – copy themselves into user’s files.
• Trojan horses -malware disguised as legitimate software.
• Ransom ware.
• Back doors – holes in someone’s security, can be used for suture attacks.
Typical Malware actions:
Deleting or modifying files.
Scareware – tells user that their computer is infected with viruses making them pay for it to be fixed.
Locking files – ransomware encrypts all files on a computer. User is demanded to pay a large sum of money in exchange for a decryption key
Rootkits – alter permissions giving hackers administrator-level access to devices.
• Easiest way to get someone’s password is to ask for it – social engineering.
• Brute-force attacks try every possible combination.
• Some passwords are common.
• Bogus emails often claiming to be from financial organisations are traps.
Denial of Service attack (DOS):
Many computers can be recruited by malware to send multiple requests to a particular site.
This can increase traffic to an extent that the site becomes unusable.
Data packets can be intercepted and examined.
Packet sniffing can be used legitimately to detect attacks.
SQL – Structured Query Language
Many online servers use SQL to administer their databases.
SQL can be used to extract data, but also to do damage.
A web form can be ‘fed’ with SQL statements that execute when the server interprets them.
If a website’s SQL code is insecure, it can be easy for hackers to get past the firewall.
Attempting to gain access to a network by bypassing the usual entry processes can be used legitimately to expose weaknesses.
It consists of -
Software or hardware or a combination of the two.
Rules applied to traffic to determine whether to allow communication to take place.
Some contain anti-phishing features that reduce number of phishing emails received.
Examine all data entering and leaving the network – block any potential threats.
Phishing – type of social engineering.
Where criminals send emails claiming to be businesses saying you need to update personal information.
Sent to thousands of people in hope that someone will believe it is legitimate.