Garrett (2017) researching language socialization (Major contributions…
Garrett (2017) researching language socialization
A key aspect
the development of communicative competence
involves linguistic competence (acquiring the language) + cultural knowledge
understand how social interactions shape the developmental trajectories of individuals, how they fit into larger systems of cultural meaning and practice, and how they are reproduced and transformed over the course of time (popular culture influence?) (ideology influence?) (different register, different accent, different sociocultural background?) :question:
1980s Ochs and Schieffelin (1984, 1986)
combined two separate branches (psycholinguistics-based acquisition research + anthropology-based socialization studies)
Ochs (1988) conducted her study in Western Samoa Schieffelin (1990) did hers among Kaluli in Papua New Guinea
Shirley Heath (1983) examined language practices in two working-class communities, one black and one white in the USA
Vasquez et al (1994): bilingual (Spanish-English) working-class community which focuses on continuities and discontinuities between home and school contexts
Baquedano-Lopez (2001): another Spanish-English bilingual setting: a Catholic parish in LA
He (2001): Chinese heritage-language classes in the USA: examined several sites( school, home, community), examined the role of traditional Chinese cultural values and social roles
Longitudinal study design
Field-based collection and analysis of a substantial corpus of naturalistic audio/video data
a holistic, theoretically informed ethnographic perspective
attention to both micro and macro levels of analysis and to linkages between them
Works in progress
studies that look at schools and educational settings
Two main sites (school and home)
Paugh 2005: :star: dinner-table conversation of middle-class family foster children's communicative competence which helps them perform in school.
Gutierrez et al. 2001: :star: immigrant and ethnic-minority communities in the US, if the topics/activities in class are familiar to children, they perform better.
Garcia-Sanchez 2014 :star: Moroccan immigrant children in Spain
Studies that look at a specific community
Fader(2009): :star: school-age girls' use of their local dialects and English
New ways of conceptualizing communities in a "globalizing" world ((Baquedano-López 2001; Duranti et al. 1995; García-Sánchez 2014).
Problems and difficulties
oldest and most commonly raised criticism: it focuses primarily on sociocultural reproduction :warning: it does not address unusual developmental outcomes and does not acknowledge the potential for innovation and change sufficiently.
Exceptions of unusual developmental outcomes: Ochs (2002) on autism and Capps and Ochs (1995) on agoraphobia
Exceptions for innovations or transformative processes: research on language preservation and revitalization (Garrett, 2005, 2007; Meek, 2010; Paugh, 2012)
subtle changes in the most mundane of practices at local, micro levels, may have ramifications that manifests themselves at macro levels.
Partner with quantitative researchers (include large-scale surveys)
novice's agency must be recognized and considered
although acknowledged, few made it explicit focus of inquiry. Because it's easy to lose sight of this issue in classroom-based research and formal education settings where environment is configured and regimented in line with traditional "top-down" models of learning :warning:
now with rapid increase of studies, the directions are diffused, difficult for researchers to exchange findings and insights and to formulate goals and objectives :warning:
Kulick and Schieffelin (2004): need to attend to "bad subjects": who persistently display culturally dispreferred traits and engage in nonnormative, deviant behaviors :fire:
language socialization that occurs later in the life-span (Duff et al., 2000): job-seeking immigrants in Canada: adult learning in classroom settings
a need to see culture and language are conceptualized in relational terms. symbolically mediated, co-constructed, dynamically emergent qualities (Kramsch, 2002).
An example: Berman (2014) showed that some cross-cultrual applicable notions such as childhood and age are actually locally conceptualized, negotiated, and made relevant in particular kinds of interactions
individual development should be variable, contingent, nonlinear, open-ended. There are different kinds of "successful" outcomes