BIRTH DEFECTS / CONGENITAL DEFECTS (MOST COMMON TYPES OF BIRTH DEFECTS…
BIRTH DEFECTS / CONGENITAL DEFECTS
MOST COMMON TYPES OF BIRTH DEFECTS
Congenital heart disease - An abnormality in the heart that develops before birth.
Down syndrome - A genetic chromosome 21 disorder causing developmental and intellectual delays.
Cleft lip and cleft palate - Openings or splits in the roof of the mouth and lip.
Spina bifida - A birth defect in which a developing baby's spinal cord fails to develop properly.
Club foot - A birth defect in which the foot is twisted out of shape or position
Phenylketonuria - A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body.
Edwards' syndrome - A condition that causes severe developmental delays due to an extra chromosome 18.
CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES
TIME OF ONSET
DEFECTIVE CHROMOSOMES OR GENES
This results from the abnormal development on an organ or tissue. It occurs at fertilisation or during organogenesis and may be generalised, e.g.Fetal alcohol syndrome, or confined to a popular area, e.g. Cleft palate.
TERATOGENIC FACTORS AMNIOTIC BANDS
Mechanical forces can alter the shape or position of a normal tissue in in fetal life. for an example (Oligohydramnios can cause malalalignment of the feet.)
A breakdown of a previously normal organ or tissue result in a disruption. This may be caused by a vascular insult, e.g. Small bowel atresia (is a condition in which an orifice or passage along the intestines are (abnormally) closed or absent.), or by a mechanical one e.g. Amniotic Band Syndrome.