Primary goal of this research: analyze children's verbal interactions with others as socially and culturally grounded enactments of preferred and expected sentiments, aesthetics, moralities, ideas, orientations to attend to and engage people and objects, activities, roles, and paths to knowledge and maturity as broadly conceived and evaluated by families and other institutions within a community (Heath, 1983, 1990). :tada:
Ochs and Schieffelin's observation challenges the simplified two-way communicative between baby and caregivers. Because caregivers in the communities they observe constantly ask the baby to observe other people, repeat utterances to people in their environment.
Kaluli and Samoan infants: their parents do not use simplified input when talking to them and do not expand their utterance - due to local ideologies (do not assert or guess others' unexpressed or unclear thoughts or feelings due to a respect to older persons and higher status persons do not accommodate down); Those children become competent speakers
They position children as overhearers and immerse them in a linguistic environment of nonsimplified conversations; VS in western culture, children positioned as addressees, so in order for them to comprehend and respond, parents need simplify their language.