INDIA AND UN SYSTEM (demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.…
INDIA AND UN SYSTEM
demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
views of expert
Prof SD Muni - India is stuck in G-4. There is strong opposition to Germany and Japan's candidature. Africa is not comfortable with G-E. India should take all these matters to UNGA where it enjoys maximum support. Moreover, rather than UNSC seat India should focus on reforms in UNPKF.
Prof Harsh V Pant opines that India should not invest too much diplomatic energy in UNSC seat quest rather focus on other broad governance based reforms.
Conclusion - It is not only that India needs UNSC but latter also need countries like India which could play the role of bridging gap between the conflicting countries in UNSC.
To conclude, we can say that in present circumstances, India ought to invest its limited diplomatic energy to increase its influence in regions like Africa, Central Asia, LA so that more countries favour India's candidature on ground.
Challenges in India's candidature - Ever since independence, India has always demanded its rightful place in comity of nations. In this context, UNSC seat is a major foreign policy goal of India. However, following challenges are there -
india still plays a passive role in world affiars . so significant initiative after nam
India has not been formally recognized as NWS in NSG.
India's neighbourhood is not peaceful and several disputes are pending;
Opposition from Coffee Club (Uniting For Consensus);
• It is led by Italy and includes Pakistan, South [Korea Canada Argentina and some other countries.)
• It demands that a consensus must be reached firston the form and size of the Security Council before EXpanding it
• UfC is a movement to counter the bids for permanent seats proposed by G-4.
US though give verbal support but not ground support;
Veto power of permanent members - China - not supportive;
Lack of consensus over the criteria of candidature - economy or contribution to UN;
After 70 years of UN formation, the world has changed a lot. The UNSC of today does not reflect the contemporary BoP in IP. Consequently, India has been trying to get a seat at the highest diplomatic table. It shows the following arguments in this regard -
• Emerging issues: Issues such as transnational threats, deepening economic interdependence, worsening environmental degradation also call for effective multilateral negotiations for reforms yet all critical decisions are still being taken by the veto-wielding permanent members of the Security Council.
no efffective consulting with countries contributing to peace keeping
defunct unsc on account of p3 vs p2
• Crisis of legitimacy and credibility:various issues including its Interventions in Libya and Syria in the guise of responsibility have put the credibility of the institution in jeopardy.
unequal representation of continents
• North South Divide: The permanent UNSC membership of P5 today only portrays the big North-South divide in the decision making of security measures.
Indian and the UN System: Role in UN Peacekeeping
Changes India want in Peacekeeping -
Appropriate caution on the issue of ‘robust mandates’ should be exercised;
India has continues to give preferences to political solutions to conflicts;
Need for adequate resources to match peacekeeping mandates;
Troop contributing countries should be involved in mandate development by UNSC and in all aspects of mission planning;
Role of India in Peacekeeping -
India's role has been hailed as 'remarkable' by UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres
The first-ever UN Female Formed Police Unit that was provided by India (and served in Liberia) completed its tenure in 2016.
India is the largest cumulative troop contributor, having provided 1,80,000 troops since 1950s in nearly 50 of the 71 UN peacekeeping missions.
India has been the pivotal pillar of UN Peacekeeping operations ever since the establishment of UN.
Challenges in Peacekeeping -
Peacekeeping operations have become too dangerous in Post-CW environment. Many times peacekeepers have been attacked;
Peacekeepers don't have enough arms. West suggest robust peacekeeping. However, it would dilute the difference between peacekeeping and military action.
US provide just 74 of the nearly 1,20,000 soldiers;
developing countries have been accused of considering peacekeeping operations as a means for earning foreign exchange.
troop contributors accuse the P5 of choosing missions that suit their narrow NI;
Disagreements between funds contributing countries and troops contributing countries troops -
There are often strong disagreements between the host government and the UN over the command, control and employment of peacekeeping troops;
Lack of consensus and political direction has seen missions drag on aimlessly, as in Congo and Haiti;
It is largely seen to have failed in achieving its stated aims;
Former UNSG Dag Hammar SK Jold described peacekeeping as belonging to chapter six and a half.
The term peacekeeping has not been mentioned in UN Charter.
It is a technique designed to preserve peace where fighting has been halted, and to assist in implementing agreements achieved by the peace-makers.
Changes in Peacekeeping Operations -
Second Generation Peacekeeping -
in post-CW environment
peace-building involves not only military personnel but also administrators, economists, legal experts, HR monitors etc.
peace-building occurs after peacekeeping has been completed. It includes - economic reconstruction, revising state-building, improving social infrastructure.
multi-dimensional peacekeeping that includes implementing a comprehensive peace agreement, use of force to achieve humanitarian ends, the provision of emergency relief and step towards political reconstruction.
causes are mainly civil wars and here violence continues even after ceasefire and thus peace-enforcement
from peacekeeping to peace-building
First Generation Peacekeeping -
till the end of CW when the causes were mainly inter-state rivalry; e.g. after first Arab-Israel war (1948)
it involved mainly military personnel
amounts to monitoring and observing the peace process in post-conflict situations, with peacekeepers being deployed after a ceasefire has been negotiated and with fighting only in case of self defence.
un is moving from institutional inertia there is a need to reform