Factors explaining low level development in countries (Social factors…
Factors explaining low level development in countries
Political factors (politics or the running of society)
In the past, powerful countries exploit lesser countries, overtaking them for resources
Colonialism not respecting tribal borders > conflict...
Portuguese > took slaves > they killed leaders to create anarchy > to make taking resources easier
Belgium used for ivory and rubber > killed half the population
Poor treatment, violence, rape, no education
DRC had no local talent to lead the country; the population in poor health, lacking skills, less able to work.
Poor governance (autocracy, dictatorships)
Allocation of money to dictatorship family over population
Dictator Mobutu > corruption > embezzlement of country's money
No money invested into people: infrastructure, health education
Accepted too many loans which are costly.
The DRC's political history means the country lacks: infrastucture (electricity, sewage, piped water), healthcare, schools, law enforcement, legal system
Great African War is fought in the DRC - causes...
Conflict between mafia-type groups trying to control mineral trade.
Violence stops well-being
Conflict sucks money away from essentials: health, education, infrastructure
Social factors (people and society)
A lot of people under 15 years > difficult to provide food, healthcare, education, to all
High fertility rate: 4.4 children
Developing countries take loans to invest in human development projects
If poorly managed, paying loan interest can be costly
Mobutu took loans > he kept the country in poverty > DRC now in debt, paying back loans + interest
Reliance on primary products (crops, mineral)
These are often of less value, their prices can fluctuate. If there is a lot of coffee, the price reduces > less income for supplying country
Environmental or physical factors
Arid conditions cause drought > lack of food
Humid climates allow the spread of diseases (malaria)
Earthquakes, tropical cyclones > these are costly events to recover from > less money put into improving health and living conditions
Limits world trade as no ports > reduced income from trading resources
impact on communication > difficult for fibre optic cables to reach
Occurrence of natural resources
Naturally occurring oil, minerals, etc lead to trade and wealth
DRC: 80% of coltan, gold supplies
Led to mafia-type groups fighting over control of these
Limitless water, fertile soil
Resources are exploited > money is not shared between people and government > illegal mafia groups profit