The conjunctions but and although/though connect ideas that contrast. Whereas is also used but it is not as common:
The new city hall is amazing but it’s going to cost a lot.
He’s quite short, whereas his sister is tall.
But is a coordinating conjunction used to connect ideas that contrast. Coordinating conjunctions connect items which are the same grammatical type.
The meal was good
I want to lose weight
Lara cooked roast beef for me
Edinburgh is an interesting place
I hate diets.
I don’t eat meat.
it takes a long time to get there.
We can’t use however as a conjunction instead of but to connect words and phrases:
My teacher is very nice but a bit strict.
Not: My teacher is very nice however a bit strict.
Although/though can be used to contrast ideas. Although/though are subordinating conjunctions used to connect a subordinate clause to a main clause, like after, as, before, if, since, that, even though, even if.
Grace is an excellent athlete
she injured her leg recently.
Harry is a great friend
we don’t see each other often.
The although/though clause can come first.
the car was destroyed,
no one was injured in the crash.
people say it’s dangerous,
I think it’s an amazing country.
Position of subordinating conjunctions
Although or though?
But or although?
But or although?
But cannot be used in the same way as although/though. We use but to connect items which are the same grammatical type (coordinating conjunction).
The order of clauses connected by coordinating conjunctions cannot be reversed:
Although it rained a lot, we’ve still enjoyed our holiday.
We’ve still enjoyed our holiday, although it rained a lot.
It rained a lot but we’ve still enjoyed our holiday.
Not: But it rained a lot, we’ve still enjoyed our holiday.
Although can sound more formal than but. Though is much more common in speaking than in writing. Although is much more common in writing than in speaking.