Topic 2 Central processing unit (CPU) (History of Microprocessor (Intel…
Central processing unit (CPU)
History of Microprocessor
Intel Itanium- 64-bits processor bus and have 28 register
AMD- significant rival to Intel in the market, invented chip: K5, K6, Athlon, Duron, and Sempron
Pentium M- 32-bits processor, consume less energy and prolong battery life
Pentium I -First chip form the fifth generation of microprocessor
80386-first 32-bit machine, able to multi-tasking
8080 - First 8-bits machine
E-time or execution time is defined to be the time taken to decode and execute the instruction
It is the first half of the instruction cycle
I-time or instruction time is defined to be the time taken to fetch an instruction or data from memory and stored in the instruction register.
complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
Favored for portable computers and other devices because low power consumption
emitter-coupled logic (ECL)
four-bit device, while inexpensive, are good only for simple control application
Greater speed but consume more power
transistor-transistor logic (TTL)
Is most commonly used
Pipelining does not decrease the time for individual instruction, it increase instruction throughput
Pipelining can execute more instructions in a shorter period of time.
Each stage completes a part of an instruction in parallel.
A technique where multiple instructions are overlapped in execution and is much like an assembly line
Fetch and decode is called fetch cycle, execute and store called execute cycle
storing or writing the result to memory
executing the commands
decoding the instruction into commands the computer understands
fetching the instruction or data item from memory
Tasks of processor
the results of an execution may require writing data to memory or an I/O module.
the execution of an instruction may require performing some arithmetic or logical operation on data.
the execution of an instruction may require reading data from memory or an I/O module.
the instruction is decoded to determine what action is required.
the processor reads an instruction from memory (register, cache, main memory)
CPU with the system bus
Address bus -collection of wires used to identify location in main memory
Control bus- regulate the activity of bus
Data bus - carry data
To store instruction, data and the locations of the instruction temporarily
ii) control unit (CU)
Control the movement of data and instructions into and out of the processor
i)arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)
do the actual computation (calculation)
Interconnection of the major component of a CPU to computer system via system bus
Wong Cong Zhi 1181100850
Lee Wei Yang 1181100308
Denesh A/L Muthu