Challenges between educational research and praxis: :check: Teachers tend to express opposition to the innovations suggested by researchers -science teachers and science education researchers tend to begin their studies in physics, chemistry, or biology, where an (quasi-)experimental setting is conventional. :check: Science teachers may perceive results gained from research using methods other than quasi-experimentation – e.g. interviews – as being nothing more than personal opinion. science teaching and learning phenomena is very difficult to treat as an independent or dependent variable. :check: For example, classroom settings, social and psychological atmosphere, pupils’ motivation, affection and conceptions toward a topic to be learned or toward schooling as such, and moreover, students’ experiences outside the school such as discussions with their parents and media, are hard-operationalized factors that have an influence on science teaching and learning. :check: A designer might have an idea of how to solve problems in science teaching and learning through his or her innovation based on a designer’s own experiences and beliefs teachers’ may think that the introduced artefact may work well in the designers’ context, but not at all in an authentic real-life setting to answer critiques aimed at science education is to focus on, not only, the process of pupils’ learning and the properties of the artefact to be designed, but also on teachers’ knowledge and on authentic teaching and learning settings.:check: Research approaches engaging design consist of three parties: (a) a designer (e.g. researcher), (b) a practitioner (e.g. teacher), and (c) an artefact (e.g. web-based learning environment for science education).