Why do food consumption patterns vary between DCs and LDCs? (Political…
Why do food consumption patterns vary between DCs and LDCs?
How has it been changing?
In general, DCs > LDCs
Both DCs and LDCs disposable income are increasing.
e.g. for every $1 increase in income in DCs, only 20% of the increased income is spent on food.
Able to afford more expensive food with certain health benefits (organic food) --> increase in quality of diets
Almost zero increase on cereals and second lowest increase on oils and fats.
As disposable income increases, food consumption increases mostly for meat, veg, fruits, other food, beverages and tobacco.
Both DCs & LDCs
have more financial ability to consume a larger amount and variety of food.
Often, they consume more meat and less cereals as meat is associated with wealth and status
e.g. Taiwan experienced high economic growth from 1959 to 1991 and during this time, rice consumption declined by half and meat consumption increased 4 times, fruits, 5 times and fish doubled.
e.g. for every $1 increase in income in LDCs, up to 60% increased income goes to spending on food.
As disposable income increases, food consumption increases for all types of food.
Pricing of food
How has it changed?
From 2006 to 2008, spike in food prices worldwide
growing demand for biofuels resulted in farmland being used for growing them instead of food crops
bad weather destroyed crops
restrictions on export of rice and wheat
governments attempted to control the price of food
Rising energy prices pushed up transport costs
Why would it result in varied food consumption pattern in DCs and LDCs?
In DCs, people selected less expensive options instead but were generally still able to afford sufficient amount of food.
Both DCs and LDCs
See rise in food prices due to shortage of food crops
Staple food prices increased more than other food groups.
e.g. prices of cereal rose worldwide by 300%
LDCs more affected than DCs due to less disposable income, they spent a larger part of their income on food.
People in LDCs were unable to afford food
e.g. the food crisis from 2006 to 2009 pushed 100 million more people worldwide into chronic hunger and poverty
sparked food riots and street protests
The changing Venezuela diet as food prices rocket since 2014.
Why would it result in varied consumption pattern in DCs and LDCs?
Globalisation has made it possible for fast food chains to set up restaurants in LDCs
As more LDCs such as India and China opened up its economy to foreign investors, many TNCs such as KFC and Mcdonald’s have entered their markets
More people choose to patronise these outlets rather than local food stalls, increase demand for fast food
e.g. in India, Indians spent an estimated US$1.3 billion on fast food chain restaurants in 2009, and sales for local and western fast food chains are growing 28%/year
In DCs, fast food is still popular but more people are moving away from it due to harmful effects on health
People in DCs are more concerned how food is prepared and processed, with large amount of oil, processed meat and chemicals used
Decreasing demand for fast food
How has preference for fast food changed?
food that can be prepared easily and quickly
Eaten as a quick meal or packaged for take-away
Standardised production and handling process ensures consistency and quality of food served
More young adults dine at these outlets due to convenience and affordability
How are they different from non-organic?
Organic use natural fertilisers such as manure and compost vs non-organic use chemical fertilisers such as specific quantities of nitrogen or potassium needed for plant growth
Organic tends to be smaller as no growth hormones used vs non-organic where use of chemicals result in larger crop yield
Organic requires more labour for hand-weeding as no chemical pesticides or herbicides are used vs non-organic which uses chemicals hence reduced dependence on human labour
Organic more expensive due to higher costs of production for labour vs non-organic which is cheaper
Organic perceived to be healthier as no chemicals used vs non-organic which is perceived to be less healthy as chemicals used may remain on food produce
Food grown without the use of artificial inputs e.g. chemical fertilisers or growth hormones
Why would it result in varied consumption pattern?
People are increasingly influenced by health concerns about the use of pesticides in traditional farming which risk cancer
More are consuming organic food to avoid the potential harmful pesticides used during food production
e.g. In Asia, demand for organic food has grown 20% every year since 20%
However, not many are able to afford as organic food are more costly
How has population changed?
Growth rates are higher in LDCs than DCs especially in Sub-Saharan African
Due to lack of family planning and need for farm labour in LDCs
Why would it lead to varied consumption pattern?
Both DCs and LDCs
Increasing demand for food to meet needs of rising global population
However, increasing demand is greater in LDCs
Food consumption will be greater in LDCs than DCs
e.g. LDCs will consume about 72% of global cereal and meat production from current 58% by 2050.
Governments influence stability of food supply and food safety which result in different food consumption patterns
Stability of food supply
How would food supply be stable?
When safe and nutritious food is available to all people at all times
By increasing food supply
Through increasing food production
Improving technology to increase crop yield
Opening new areas for agricultural purposes
Though increasing food imports
Why would it result in varied consumption patterns in DCs and LDCs?
LDCs less able to import food
Unable to deal with price fluctuations
More costly due to freight charges
Able to open new areas for agricultural purposes to increase agricultural land
LDCs lack access to technology and finances to implement on large scale
Food supply is less stable, hence less concumption
Disruption to food supply
More occurrence of civil war
Restricts people from venturing out to find or buy food due to cities and areas with heavy fighting
Food and water shortages as food supplies are destroyed by war
e.g. 2011 civil war in Libya caused a loss of rural manpower, abandonment of farms and depletion of food stocks causing food security crisis
e.g. the 2010 floods in Mozambique resulting from incessant rain damaged the crops and poor harvests adversely affected food security and lifestyles of those replying on agriculture for their incomes and food supplies
Huge amount of rain or failed dams can wash away farmlands through erosion, carrying away the soil, seed, harvests and whatever is on land
Lack of water for crops to grow resulting in failed harvest
e.g. in 2008, persistent drought in Zimbabwe destroyed maize harvest resulted in instability of staple food in the country
e.g. the 2010 Haiti earthquake crippled the agricultural sector and left the economy in shambles making it unable to import food. Insufficient funds left the country in food shortage situation
DCs can import food easily
e.g. Singapore relies on import to make up 90% of our food supply
DCs greater access to technology for food production
Greater stability of food supply , hence more food consumption
How would food be safe for consumption?
By providing guidelines, ensure proper handling, preparation, transportation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases
Ensure food safety and standards are met
Tracking down contaminated foods that cause outbreaks of foodbourne diseases and removing those foods from the shelves
Why would it affect food consumption pattern?
threats to food safety may come from unexpected events resulting in decrease in consumption of certain food product
e.g. the outbreak of mad cow disease in the late 1990s in Europe and again in 2005 in USA and Canada led to a decrease in consumption of beef because human could contract the disease by eating the meat from an infected cow. The decrease in demand for beef saw sharp decline of almost 1 million tones in 1990 from 1989 in Europe.
People refrain from consuming certain contaminated food for health and safety concerns