LO1: 1.4 Cardiovascular System (1.4.4 Cardiovascular measurements- …
LO1: 1.4 Cardiovascular System
1.4.1 Structure and function of the blood vessels-
Learners will know about the structure of the blood vessels and understand how structure relates to the functions of blood distribution.
Thin walls, contain valves to ensure blood flows in one direction
Carry blood to the heart, carry deoxygenated blood, carry blood under low pressure
Thick, muscular walls
Carry blood away from the heart to the body, carry oxygenated blood, carry blood under high pressure
The smallest blood vessels, with very thin walls
Assist with gaseous exchange at the lungs (see section 1.3.2 Functions of the respiratory system).
Learners will know and understand that the blood vessels redistribute blood (vascular shunt) during health and fitness activities
the function of blood redistribution to the muscles with greater demand, while diverting away from areas of lower demand, through:
The widening of blood vessels (vasodiation)
The narrowing of blood vessels (vasoconstriction)
1.4.3 The Cardiac Cycle-
Learners will know and understand the order of the cardiac cycle and the pathway of deoxygenated and
oxygenated blood around the heart.
Deoxygenated blood – from the body → vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary artery→ to the lungs → pick up oxygen and nutrients to become oxygenated
Oxygenated blood – from the lungs → pulmonary vein → left atrium → left ventricle → aorta → to the body → drop off oxygen and nutrients, pick up waste products and become deoxygenated
1.4.2 Structure of the heart
- Learners will know and understand that the heart is divided into two sides (left and right) and should be able to locate the following structures
Atria (left and right)
Ventricles (left and right)
1.4.4 Cardiovascular measurements-
Learners will know and understand the following cardiovascular measurements, including how they are measured (limited to maximal heart rate and cardiac output) and understand how they are relevant to health and fitness.
Maximal heart rate (MHR) 220-age= MHR
Cardiac Output- CO= SV x HR
The relationship between stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output.
1.4.5 Blood Pressure-
Learners will know and understand the two different types of blood pressure, the ranges of blood pressure classification and factors that affect blood pressure
Range of blood pressure classifications:
the ideal range- between 90/60 mmhg and 120/80 mmhg
high blood pressure is 140/90mmhg
low pressure is 90/60mmhg
Factors that affect blood pressure. This includes: