Religion (From the Hearth of the Easter Mediterranean (Christianity (Can…
From the Hearth of the Easter Mediterranean
Grew out of the belief system of Jews around 4000 years agp
The Atlas of Religion says that all of the world's 18 million Jews, 40.5 percent live in the U.S, 40.2 percent live in Israel, and less than 5 percent live in France, Canada, the UK, Russia, and Argentina.
Reform movement developed with the objective of adjusting Judaism and its practices to current times.
Orthodox movement sought to retain old precepts
Conservative is both reform and orthodox combined
Diffusion of Judaism
Diaspora - Signifies the spatial dispersion of members of any ethnic group.
Jews that went to Central Europe were known as Ashkenazium
Jews who scattered across North Africa and into Spain and Portugal
Zionism - belief that Jews should not be absorbed into other societies
Can be traced back to the same hearth in the Mediterranean as Judaism
a Monotheistic religion
Catholic theology teaches the infallibility of the pope interpreting Jesus' teaching
Eastern Orthodox Church- suffered blows when the Ottoman Turks defeated the Serbs in Kosovo in 1389
The Roman Catholic Church claims the most adherents of all Christian denominations
Protestant sects of Christianity compose the third major branch of Christianity
Largest and most dispersed religion in the world
Diffusion of Christianity
The dissemination of Christianity occurred because of a mixture of expansion and relocation diffusion
Christianity occurred during the era of European colonialism beginning in the 16th century
Because of missionaries, Catholicism was found in Congo, Angola, Mozambique, and the Philippines
The Christian faith has always been characterized by aggressive and persistent proselytism
The youngest of the three major religions
Can be traced back to a single founder; Muhammad
The precepts of Islam revised Judaic and Christian beliefs
Allah's will is omnipotent and omniscient
Divided into two sections, Sunni Muslim (the majority) and Shi'ite (concentrated in Iran)
The divide was caused because of the death Muhammad
Diffusion of Islam
Muhammad and his followers converted the kings of Arabian Peninsula to Islam. The kings then used their armies to spread faith.
Moving west, Islam diffused throughout North Africa
1.57 billion followers after Christianity
Fastest growing religion
Indigenous and Shamanist
Indigenous religion are local in scope, usually have a reverence for nature, and are passed down through family units and groups (tribes) of indigenous people
Shamanism is a community faith in which people follow their shaman
Traditional Africa religions involve beliefs of god as creator and provider, in divinities both superhuman and human, in spirits, and in a life hereafter.
The Rise of Secularism
Church and religious membership produces a total of about 4 billion adherents
Fewer than 3 percent of the people in Scandinavia reported frequent attendance, and in France and Great Britain less than 10 percent reported attending church at least once a month
French government wanted to remove the "disruption" of Muslim girls wearing hijab, Jewish boys wearing yarmulke, and Christian students wearing large crosses to school
Antireligious ideologies are contributing to the decline of organized religion
Conflicts along Religious Borders
Interfaith boundaries - The boundaries between the world's major faiths
Intrafaith boundaries - The boundaries within a single major faith.
Israel and Palestine are an interfaith boundary.
Ethnic Cleansing - Describes outster of Bosnian Muslims and others from their homes
Jihad - An Islamic holy war
Sacred Sites of Jerusalem
The most important sacred site for Jews is the Western wall (also called wailing wall)
Jerusalem is sacred to Christians because of the sacrifice Abraham was willing to make of his son at the Temple Mount and Because Jesus' crucifixion took place outside the city's wall
In 17th century, Muslim armies took control over the city from the Byzantine Empire
Between 1095 and 1199 European political and religious leaders organized a series of Crusades to retake the so-called Holy Land
Muslims ultimately retook Jerusalem in 1187
Landscapes of Hinduism and Buddhism
Hindus believe that the erection of the temple bestows merit on the builder and will be rewarded
Hindu temple is located in a "comfortable" position
Water is ritual bathing in Hinduism
Stupas are bell-shaped structures that protect burial mounds
Hindus, Buddhists, and Shintoists cremate their dead
Landscape of Christianity
Christianity's branches reflect the changes the faith has undergone over the centuries
The reformation, the rise of secularism, and the decline of organized religion are reflected in the cultural landscapes
Bury their dead
Cremation is becoming increasingly common amount Christians in North America
Where Did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How Do Religions Diffuse?
Monotheistic religions worship one thing
Polytheistic religions worship multiple things
Animistic religions worship inanimate objects
Around 3500 years ago, a monotheistic religion developed in Southwest Asia called Zoroastrianism
Hearth of Greek philosophy - Northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
Hearth of Hinduism - Along the Indus River Valley
Hearth of Judaism - Eastern Mediterranean
Hearth of Chinese philosophies - Huang He River Valley
Landscapes of Islam
Minarets - the most carefully maintained building towering the cities, town, and villages of Islam
Geographer Surinder Bhardwaj studied haji by visiting sacred shrines of holy men, the graves of saints and Imams, and the tombs of martyrs of the faith
Haji - Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
Zirat is voluntary
Religious Landscapes in the United States
In "The Cultural Geography of the United States, geographer Wilbur Zelinsky created a map identifying religious religions in the country
New England region is mostly Catholic, South is Baptist, the Upper Midwest is Lutherans, and the Southwest is Spanish Catholic
Authors, Barney Warf and Mort Winsberg mapped a map showing counties with the least religious diversity in the darkest colors
Immigrants built many of the Catholic churches
How is Religion Seen in the Cultural Landscape?
Pilgrimage - When adherents voluntarily travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
Sacred sites are places or spaces people
Mary Lee Nolan studied Irish sacred sites and observed many of the remote physical features
Nolan found that the "sacred" (bones of saints or was typically brought to a place in order to infuse the place with meaning
From the Hearth of the Huang He River Valley
People have traced Taoism to an older contemporary of Confiucius, Loa- Tsu, who published "Book of the Way"
Feng Shui - the art and science of organizing living spaces in order to channel the life forces that exist in nature in favorable ways.
Virtues are simplicity and spontaneity, tenderness, and tranquility
Lived from 551 to 479 BCE, and followers constructed a blueprint for Chinese civilization
Confucianism - mainly a philosophy of life and similar to Taoism
The Chinese emperor modified Confucians ideals over time
Diffusion of Chinese Religions
Confucianism diffused in the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Southeast Asia, and has influenced Buddhism
Chinese immigrants expanded the influence of the Chinese religions in parts of Southeast Asia and helped introduce their principles to Europe and North America
The diffusion of Chinese religions has been tempered by the Chinese government's efforts to suppress religion in the country
Chinese families put the ashes of a loved one in one specific place rather than spread them around
The World Map of Religions Today
Shadings on maps show the major religion in an area, which masks minority of religions, many that have a large number of followers
Some regions that are shown to belong to a certain religion are places where faith have penetrated and where traditional religious ideas have influenced the dominate faith
Universalizing religion - Actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal
Ethnic religion - Adherents are born into faith, and converts are not actively sought
From the Hearth of South Asia
Hinduism ranks third after Christianity and Islam as world religion
Does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its orgins
Based on ancient practices
No longer associates with Pakistan
Vast majority of Indians are Hindu
The Ganges is Hinduism's sacred river
Caste system kicks people into a particular social classes and imposes many restrictions
Buddhism splintered from Hinduism over 2500 years ago.
Buddha's death in 489 BCE at age 80 caused faith to grow more slowly
Buddhism changed as it grew and diffused, and now there are different forms of religion
Shintoism is found in a local religion in Japan, which is mixed with Buddhism
What Is Religion, and What Role Does It Play In Culture?
Religion and language both confer and reflect identity
Religion - Geographers Robert Stoddard and Carolyn Prorak define religion as "a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities.
Secularism is the indifference to or rejection of formal religion.
The most secular countries in the world today are in Europe
The Christian church was a dominant force politically, economically, and culturally in Europe
Spatial interaction occurs because of migration, missionary efforts, and even conquest.
Religions diffuse through expansion diffusion
Including contagious, hierarchical, and relocation