Counseling: Children and Adolescents (Credentials (Registered Play…
Counseling: Children and Adolescents
Provides preferred ethical decision-making model
F. Ethical Decision Making:
When faced with an ethical dilemma, school counselors and school counseling program directors/supervisors use an ethical decision-making model such as Solutions to Ethical Problems in Schools (STEPS) (Stone, 2001):
does not provide a preferred ethical decision-making model
Ethical Decision Making: No specific ethical decision-making model is alway most effective, so counselors are expected to use a credible model of decision making that can bear public scrutiny of its application.
Do not diagnose
A.1.c. Do not diagnose but remain acutely aware of how a student’s diagnosis can potentially affect the student’s academic success.
E.5.d. Refrain From Diagnosis: Counselors may refrain from making and/or reporting a diagnosis if they believe that it would cause harm to the client or others. Counselors carefully consider both the positive and negative implications of a diagnosis
But, still allowed to diagnose....HA!
E.5.a. Proper Diagnosis: counselors take special care to provide proper diagnosis of mental disorders
Does not use the Oxford Comma
Uses the Oxford Comma
Purpose or Audience
Purpose: The ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors were developed in consultation with state school counseling associations, school counselor educators, school counseling state and district leaders and school counselors across the nation to clarify the norms, values and beliefs of the profession
A.1.a. Have a primary obligation to the students, who are to be treated with dignity and respect as unique individuals.
Purpose: the ACA is an educational, scientific, and professional organization whose members work in a variety of settings and serve in multiple capacities
A.2.h. "In the absence of state legislation forbidding disclosure, consider the ethical responsibility to provide information to an identified third party who, by his/her relationship with the student, is at a high risk of contracting a disease that is commonly known to be a communicable and fatal
provides steps to follow
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974
FERPA is a United States federal law that governs the access of educational information and records to public entities such as potential employers, publicly funded educational institutions, and foreign governments.
also commonly referred to as the "Buckley Amendment" after its principal sponsor, Senator James Buckley of New York.
Section B: Confidentiality and Privacy
B.2.c. Contagious, Life-Threatening Diseases: "...Counselors may be justified in disclosing information to identifiable third parties ..."
No mention that counselors should provide favorable conditions for assessment, but do say that school counselors must...
A.13.b. Adhere to all professional standards when selecting, administering and interpreting assessment measures and only utilize assessment measures that are within the scope of practice for school counselors ..."
Mentions that counselors should provide favorable assessment conditions
E.7. Conditions of Assessment Administration
E.7.b. Provisions of Favorable Conditions: Counselors provide an appropriate environment for the administrations of assessments (e.g., privacy, comfort, freedom from distraction)
Compare Code of Ethics
American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics
American School Counselor Association (ASCA) Code of Ethics
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in a field of psychology or Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.)
Counselors, Clinicians, Therapists
Master’s degree (M.S. or M.A.) in a mental health-related field such as psychology, counseling psychology, marriage or family therapy
Registered Play Therapists (RPT)
Master's or higher mental health degree with demonstrated coursework in child development, theories of personality, principles or psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychopathology, and ethics
Two years and 2000 hours of supervised clinical mental health experience (postgraduate direct client contact hours) required by state licensure
Play Therapy Training
150 hours of play therapy specific instruction from institutions of higher education or APT approved providers (limit of 50 non contact hours)
Supervised play therapy experience & supervision
500 direct client contact hours under supervision and 50 hours of simultaneous play therapy supervision.
Criteria for Renewal
- current and active individual state license to independently provide clinical mental health services.
- 18 hours of play therapy specific instruction from institutions of higher education or APT approved providers every 36 months.
Registered Play Therapists-Supervisors (RPT-S)
Additional 3 years and 3000 direct client contact hours of clinical experience after initial full licensure.
Supervised Play Therapy Experience & Supervision
An additional 500 direct client contact hours of play therapy experience
30 Continued education hours of clinical supervisor training is required. 6 hours must be play therapy specific and 24 may be either specific or non-specific to play therapy.
School Counselor Certification
Masters degree from an accredited program
Two yrs teaching experience
Minimum core of 240 on the School Counselor Exam
In 1913, the National Vocational Guidance Association was established and helped to promote school counseling as a profession.
Smith Hughes Act of 1917
Provided funding for public school to provide vocation guidance programs and allowed school to separate their vocational guidance programs from standard curriculum courses.
the American Personnel and Guidance Association
, now known as
the American School Counseling Association
, was formed.
This had an impact on school counseling because it helped to highlight and gain recognition for the profession through promotion of services.
In the early 1970s, the growth in school counseling decreased as the people in the field of education started to question the validity of the school counselor's role by questioning the contributions school counselors were making in educational settings.
Many school counselor positions were eliminated during this time. Until the late 1970s, when the emergence and endorsement of the developmental approach to guidance that school counselor regained support.
During the 1990s, many school counselors were charged with designing developmental guidance programs for their school. Which is where
The Elementary School Counseling Demonstration Act of 1995
was brought upon.
It provides funding for schools who implement creative and promising guidance initiatives. As well as, provides student to counselor ratios and encourages collaborative work between school counselors, school psychologist, and social workers.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA)
is a federal law that protects the privacy of student education records.
This law is to ensure educational records are kept private and guarantee access to these records by parents. FERPA states that educational records are private. In general, the only person who can authorize publication of educational records is the student's parent(s) or an "eligible student."
The establishment of
CACREP in 1981
is important to the development of school counseling because the association set the educational standards for the accreditation of counselors. This was important because now there was a uniform set of requirements for the educational background of counselors
2003 ASCA National Model,
is a national model for a comprehensive school counseling model. This comprehensive model ensures equitable access to opportunities for all students to participate fully in the educational process. With this model as a basis, school counselors were supported in becoming the most efficient and supportive source of the educational and counseling process to their students
The ASCA Model encourages professional school counselors to use crosswalking strategies and to create action plans and results reports that demonstrate "how" school counselors are making a difference in the lives of students. The most recent version of the ASCA National Model was published in 2012.
In 1958, school counseling as a profession gained another boost by
the National Defense Act
passage which provided funding for counseling services in the schools.
By the 1960s, the number of school counselors hired by schools had increased tremendously and new counseling theories that emerged in the 1960s were being applied in the field.
Prior to the 20th Century
School counseling as a profession first evolved in the late 1800s primarily as a response to the Industrial Revolution and the vocational guidance movement.
The vocational guidance movement was all about preparing young people for their entry into the workforce, and so the role of school counselor evolved.
The first school counselors were primarily vocational counselors who were focused on getting students on the path towards work.
identifying students who were failing
implementing strategies to prevent students from failing
ensuring students obtained work cards
urging students to stay in school
preparing students to work
(Directive and Non-Directive)
Animal Assisted Therapy: Use of animals to engage the individual and teach social skills, build confidence, encourage a sense of responsibility, and instill empathy/compassion.
Psychodrama: The dramatization and role playing to create a cathartic experience for the individual.
Dance Movement Therapy: Marian Chace the founder of American Dance Therapy Association. Therapies include creative, improvisation, and choreographed dancing.
Jungian Analytical Play Therapy: Spontaneous form of expression from child in the form of drawing. Therapist is their to facilitate the experience in a safe environment for child, and helps child identify the meaning and symbolism. (Examples of use in children who have been sexually abused).
Photo Therapy: Photography, scrap booking,collage making used to express themselves, their emotions.
Family Sculpture: Used to depict the perception the child has of the family and the role they play.
Nordoff-Robins Music Therapy/Orff Music Therapy: Bringing children with intellectual disabilities and autism to create music as a form of expression and communication.
Individual Sessions Listening to music and then discussing emotions tied to the sound, meanings to lyrics, etc. (Frequently used with adolescents)
Group Sessions: Examples such as drum circles to bring a sense of belonging and expression.