:bomb:THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES :moneybag: 28 June 1919 (MAIN TERMS (War…
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
28 June 1919
Germany had to accept total responsibility for starting the war.
Germany was made to pay reparations of 6.6 BILLION
It became a demilitarised zone, Germany could not have troops on it.
Germany and Austria, who were former allies, were now no longer allowed to unite
The German Army was restricted to only 100,00 men. They were allowed just 6 warships, and were allowed no air force, tanks or submarines.
League of Nations
The League of Nations was an 'international police force' that was set up to prevent future wars. Germany was not allowed in the League.
They became mandates, meaning France and Britain controlled them
-Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent states (Germany had taken these states from Russia in 1918)
-Saar was controlled by the League of Nations (with a vote by the population to be held on the matter after 15 years)
-Danzig became a free city controlled by the League of Nations (giving Poland a seaport)
Alsace-Lorraine went to France
REACTION OF THE ALLIES AND GERMANY
He liked the fact that Germany was taking blame for the war
He also liked the idea of disarming Germany
Also liked the idea of regaining Alsace-Lorraine and the mandates
He wanted the Saar back for longer than 15 years
He also wanted an Independent Rhineland
Most French people did not think the League of Nations would protect them against Germany
Lloyd George :flag-gb:
He liked the idea of reducing the German Navy
He also liked getting colonies as mandates
He wasn't happy with Germany taking the full blame
He also thought that the military terms were harsh and humiliating
The economist John Maynard Keynes prophesied that reparations would ruin the economy of Europe
Woodrow Wilson :flag-us:
He liked the idea of the League of Nations being established
He also liked the self-determination for Poland (14 points)
Wilson thought the treaty was far too harsh
Many Americans did not want to get involved in Europe, and in 1920 the American Senate refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, or join the League of Nations
They were angry that they had not been allowed to negotiate
There was a revolution (the Kapp Putsch) against the treaty in Berlin in 1920.
Germany hated reparations. It had to be made to pay in 1921, defaulted in 1923 and eventually Hitler refused to pay altogether
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES :check:
Brought Peace to Europe
Set up the League of Nations (a peace keeping organisation)
Restored countries boundaries and gave them a more individual identity
Demilitarisation of Germany gave the surrounding countries a feeling of security as there was no imminent threat
45 countries signed so it was agreed on by many
Gave independance to Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary
Didn't make the League of Nations very strong as it had no armed forces and so had little authority to carry out decisions
The treaty left the German people very weak and helpless, so they resented it
Reparations were very high and Britain believed they could stop trade with Germany
USA did not join the L of N so it didn't have much power
No one person out of the big three got their way, so this caused oppositions
Germans saw it as a Diktat - they had no say in it and felt it was imposed on them unfairly.