Societies and Empires of Africa (Stateless Societies (Age-Set System …
Societies and Empires of Africa
Hunting - Gathering Societies
To what might the Efe attribute their long success as a hunting-gathering society?
They live in small groups, between 10 and 100
Trade with townspeople and farmers for things like honey and other crops
Men and women have set rolls.
Men and boys hunt in both groups and alone
Use poison-tipped arrowheads to kill monkeys and small antelope.
Women gather roots, yams, mushrooms, and while seeds for medicine and food
Everyone in the came is related
What feature of the Efe Social Structure is most like that of a democratic society?
Democratic's believe in equal rights amoung people and Efe believe that everyone is equal in their society.
A respected older male, such as a father, uncle, or father-in-law, usually served as group leader
Group member settle arguments through long discussions
If conflicts cannot be settled by talking, a group member might decide to move to a different group
Member of of a group would listen to and value his opinion, but he wouldn't give orders or act as cheif
Each family in the group makes its own decisions and they are free to come and go
Daily Life for the Efe is not governed by formal written laws
How was lineage important to stateless societies?
The lineages would help equal balance power between every family so no family had more power than another
How would a conflict between youngest cousins be resolved?
The elders of the Igbo village would resolve the problem
I many African societies, families are organized in groups called lineages.
The members of a lineage believe they are descendants of a common ancestor
A lineage includes living members, past generations, and future generations.
Stateless societies did not have a centralized system of power.
Authority in a stateless society was balanced among lineages of equal power so that no one family had too much control
If a dispute would happen the elders would solve the problem.
The Igbo of southern Nigeria lived in a stateless society as early as the ninth century.
Members of a patrilineal society trace their ancestors through their fathers.
Inheritance passes from father to son
Then a son marries, he, his wife, and their children remain part of his father's extended family
In a matrilineal society, children trace their ancestors through their mothers
Young men from a matrilineal culture inherit land and wealth from their mother's family
However, even in a matrilineal society, men usually hold the positions of authority
Young people form close ties to individuals outside their lineage through the age-set system
An age set consists of young people within a region who are born during a certain time period
Each age set passes together through clearly identified life stages, such as warrior or elder
Ceremonies mark the passage to each stage
Men and women have different life stages, and each stage has its own duties and importance.
Societies like the Igbo use the age-set system to teach discipline, community service, and leadership skills to their young
How do states governed by Islamic law differ from the United States?
They believe that God is above everything else so they base their government on Islamic law.
This also meant that scholars to be government officials.
Muslims do not separate Their personal life from their religious life.
Following Law is a religious obligation
How did the Almoravids and the Almohads differ?
The Almoravids and the Almohads founded two separate empires.
Movement began after pilgrimage to Mecca.
Ibn Yasin's teachings attracted followers and founded a religious brotherhood
Their name means "people of the ribat"
Overran empire of Ghana by 1076
Seized power from Almoravids
Followed teachings of Ibn Tumart
Strictly obeyed teachings of Quar'an
Lasted 100 years and united Maghrib under one rule for the first time
Both were Muslim Reformers