Bulgaria:explode: (Transportation system: (Waterways:470 km ; major river…
, Agriculture products: Bulgaria is renowned for sheep's milk cheese, oriental tobacco, wine, rose attar (used in perfumery), vegetables, fruit, medicinal herbs, and, particularly, natural yogurt. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Europe/Bulgaria-AGRICULTURE.html#ixzz4OFQiU1iz
, Tourism industry: Bulgaria due to the excellent geographical location, remarkably rich nature, diverse relief and moderate continental climate. In the last three years Bulgarian tourism has been advancing progressively.
, GDP dedicated to provide access to internet: 3,589,347 Internet users as of June/12, 51.0% of the population, according to ITU.The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both World Wars. In 1946 it became a single-party Socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc.
, Government Name:
Republic of Bulgaria
Adopted: 1991; Overviews fundamental principles, fundamental rights and duties of citizens, the structure of the national assembly, the duties of the president, council of ministers, the judiciary, local self-government and local administration, the constitutional court, and various amendments.
, Main religion: Orthodox Christianity. Around 59%
, Participation in government: open government principles of transparency, public participation, responsibility, accountability and technological innovation which underpin the European legislation.
, Languages: Bulgarian:, 97.84%
Turkish : 4.58
, Public water supply - 98.9% of total population:
- 100% urban areas
84%in rural areas
, Access to health services or sanitation facilities: All insured persons in Bulgaria select their family doctor (general practitioner) www.mh.government.bg
, Economy: Bulgaria has maintained strong momentum in liberalizing economic activity while taking steps to restore fiscal discipline. Public debt and budget deficits remain among the region’s lowest. Open-market policies are encouraging flows of trade and investment. Efforts are underway to revitalize the stalled privatization process.
, Lora Kapelovska practices law in Sofia. She works for the law firm Landwell Bulgaria. She graduated as an LLM student from the Burgas Free University in 1995. She is a holder of LLM in European Law from the University of Stockholm, Sweden. Lora Kapelovska is an expert in competition law.Angel Panayotov practices law in Sofia; he was admitted to the Sofia Bar in 2005. He now works for the law firm Landwell Bulgaria. He graduated as an LLM student from the Sofia University “St. Kliment Ochridski” in 2004. His area of legal practice is law of corporations and law of contracts.Nikolay Bebov practices law in Sofia; he was admitted to the Sofia Bar in 1999. He works for the law firm Landwell Bulgaria. He is a LLM graduate from the Sofia University “St. Kliment Ochridski” in 1997. With some 10 years of experience as practicing lawyer, Nikolay Bebov is focused mostly on financial services law and securities regulations. He also lectures at seminars on Bulgarian securities regulations.
, Exports: The top exports of Bulgaria are Refined Petroleum ($2.82B), Refined Copper ($1.75B), Packaged Medicaments ($1.03B), Raw Copper ($952M) and Wheat ($769M), using the 1992 revision of the HS (Harmonized System) classification. Its top imports are Crude Petroleum ($3.16B), Copper Ore ($2.19B), Refined Petroleum ($1.46B), Petroleum Gas ($1.19B) and Packaged Medicaments ($1.15B).The top export destinations of Bulgaria are Germany ($3.53B), Italy ($3.01B), Turkey ($2.72B), Romania ($2.06B) and Greece ($1.77B). The top import origins are Russia ($4.91B), Germany ($3.99B), Romania ($2.3B), Italy ($2.26B) and Turkey ($1.98B).Bulgaria borders Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia.
, Climate: Temperate continental with clearly marked four seasons. A Mediterranean influence is felt in the country's southern regions. The average annual temperature is 10.5°C. The average January temperature is around O°C. Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 30°C. http://www.bulgariaski.com/pages/general_information_en.html
, Capital: Sophia
, Current population: 7,084,187
Male: 3 422 352
Female:3 661 836
Birth rate:54 250
Deaths rate: 87 007 http://countrymeters.info/en/Bulgaria
, Education level and school life expectancy: 3.33.
Primary and Secondary (8 years)https://knoema.com/atlas/Bulgaria/topics/Education/Secondary-Education/School-life-expectancy
, Literacy level:
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
, Access to drinking water: 99% people.https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2009/mar/03/access-water
, Land lines: Telenor, Mtel, and Vivatel.
, Gross Domestic Product:
GDP per capita is US$ 6,722 according to I.M.F.http://www.internetworldstats.com/eu/bg.htm
, Access to internet: 3,589,347 Internet users as of June/12, 51.0% of the populationhttp://www.internetworldstats.com/eu/bg.htm
, Administrative division: Northwestern region
, Judicial branch: Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges);
Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note
Definition: This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.Source: CIA World Factbook - This page was last updated on October 8, 2016, http://www.indexmundi.com/bulgaria/judicial_branch.html
- Constitutional Court resides outside the judiciary
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65;
Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of 4 justices every 3 years
subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial
, Legislative system: The Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria, adopted on July 13, 1991, proclaims the country as an integral state with local government, and it contains no provisions for autonomous territorial formations. State power is divided into three branches, namely, legislative, executive and judiciary, with a system of separated powers, checks and balances among the branches. The legislative organ is the National Assembly (the Bulgarian Parliament); the basic executive organ is the Council of Ministers (the Bulgarian Government); the judiciary is headed by the Supreme Judiciary Council and the Supreme Court of Cassation.
, Civil rights: The Republic of Bulgaria is a parliamentary democracy with a population of approximately 7.6 million. The constitution vests legislative authority in the unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sabranie). A minority government headed by a prime minister ruled the country. Observers generally deemed the July 2009 general elections free and fair. Law enforcement organizations reported to civilian authorities although, in some instances, law enforcement officers acted independently.Human rights problems reported during the year included police use of force against, and mistreatment of, detained persons and members of minorities and harsh conditions in prisons and detention facilities. There were strong concerns about pressure on and intimidation of journalists; reports of discrimination against religious minority groups; and corruption in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Other problems included violence against women and children; substandard education for Romani children; harsh conditions in state-run institutions for children; trafficking in persons; and discrimination against persons with disabilities, Roma, other members of minority groups, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons.
, Election system: Republic of Bulgaria is a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Head of State is the President, who is elected for a five-year term through universal suffrage. For a President to be elected a 50% plus one absolute majority is needed. If this is not achieved in the first round, then the two candidates with the highest vote percentages compete in a second round.Bulgaria has a unicameral legislature, the National Assembly, which consists of 240 seats directly elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term of office. Members of Parliament are elected under proportional representation, using the Hare-Niemeyer method of the largest remainder. Each one of Bulgaria’s twenty-eight administrative regions is an electoral constituency, except for the city of Plovdiv, which is divided into two constituencies, and the capital city of Sofia, which is split into three constituencies, for a total of thirty-one constituencies.
, Women rights: include the Law on Protection against Discrimination (2004), the Law on Countering Trafficking in Human Beings (2004), the Law on the Ombudsman (2004), and the Law on Protection against Domestic Violence (2005). At the same time, the Bill on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men was twice rejected by the National Assembly in 2002 and 2003. Although a new draft of this Bill was adopted by the Council of Ministers in 2006, it has not passed through the National Assembly.On 1 January 2004, the Law on the Protection against Discrimination (LPD) (unofficial translation), which prohibits all forms of discrimination based on age, gender, ethnic group, national origin, education, family status, and property status, came into force. The Commission for the Protection against Discrimination is charged with ensuring the principle of equal opportunity is applied in practice.
, Children protection and rights status: Article 7 of the Child Protection Law stipulates that every person who has information on child abuse should report it. Article 7(2) specifically states that this duty concerns professionals who have gotten this information in course of their professional work, thus even under professional secrecy. This includes health workers, teachers and social workers.
, Protection to minorities: Minority groups include Turks, Roma, Russians, Armenians, Vlachs, Macedonians, Greeks, Ukrainians, Jews, Romanians, Tatars and Gagauz.