Finland -Santiago Gómez
A Coggle Diagram about (Top Universities and rank in the world:
), subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
, Climate: Cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
, Population: 5,498,211 (July 2016 est.)
10.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Female population: 50.776%
, Spoken languages : Finnish (official) 89%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, Russian 1.3%, other 4.4% (2014 est.)
, Main Religions: Lutheran 73.8%, Orthodox 1.1%, other or none 25.1% (2014 est.)
, Access to health services or sanitation facilities: Health expenditures:
9.7% of GDP (2014)
, Sanitation facility access:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 97.6% of population
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
, Access to drinking water:improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
, Education expenditures and school life expectancy: 7.2% of GDP (2013)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2014)
, Access to public services: 28.5% (2011).
, Number of land lines: total subscriptions: 537,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
, Number of cellphones activated or subscriptions:total: 7.399 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (July 2015 est.)
, Access to internet:total: 5.074 million
percent of population: 92.6% (July 2015 est.)
, Types of houses: Residential buildings:
Blocks of flats:
, Main transportation systems: Airports:
Ports and terminals:
Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
, Type of government:
total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
, Administrative division (if applies):19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
, Constitution:previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
, Legal System and main organs of the legal system: civil law system based on the Swedish model
, Election system: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by Parliament in 2015
, Legislative branch (explain in 1 paragraph): unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
, Judicial Branch ((explain in 1 paragraph): highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
, judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E
, Civil rights present situation (2-3 paragraphs): Openness is a prerequisite for successful human rights policy, and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs strives to enhance it both internationally and in its own activities. Increased openness also calls for more effective empowerment of the civil society.
Supporting the operating conditions of NGOs is an important practical means of promoting human rights.
Finland appreciates the work of human rights defenders, and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs has published guidelines for protecting and supporting them. The key message is to encourage and urge the Ministry's entire staff to collaborate actively with human rights defenders.
, Women rights situation (explain in 1 paragraph):
Finland actively promotes women’s and girls' rights and gender equality in all its foreign and security policy activities, laying special emphasis on women’s political and economic participation, the elimination of women’s discrimination, and their sexual and reproductive health and rights. Finland also actively contributes to the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325, whose goals are to protect women and girls in armed conflicts, promote women’s equal participation in peace negotiations and reconstruction, and prevent gender-based violence.
, Children protection and rights status (explain in 1 paragraph): Mistreatment and sexual abuse suffered by children in the family environment are one of the main obstacles preventing a full and proper realisation of children’s rights in Finland. Mothers commit violence just as frequently as fathers. This widespread violence is often not reported to the authorities. Moreover, there is no complete or reliable system in place to control violence against children. The country has, however, recently implemented a plan to fight against the use of physical punishment on children. The plan will be completed in 2015.
, Protection to minorities (explain in 1 paragraph): Sexual and gender minorities commonly experience discrimination all over the world. Homosexuality is still criminalised in more than 80 countries. Finland advocates the elimination of all forms of criminalisation as well as other discriminatory legislation and official measures based on sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. Finland supports every person’s right to define his/her gender and sexuality on his/her own terms. Young people, in particular, must have the right to be informed without any discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and family structure. Finland supports the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual and intersexed people, or LGBTI persons, through economic and political means.
, Economy overview (1 paragraph):
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, or Sweden. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years.
, Gross domestic product (GDP):$225 billion (2015 est.)
$224 billion (2014 est.)
$225.6 billion (2013 est.)
, GDP - per capita (PPP): $41,100 (2015 est.)
$41,100 (2014 est.)
$41,600 (2013 est.)
, Main exports include products and partners:electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
Exports - partners:
Germany 13.9%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.6%, Russia 5.9%, UK 5.2%, China 4.7% (2015)
, Main imports include products and partners:foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Germany 17%, Sweden 16%, Russia 11%, Netherlands 9.1%, Denmark 4.1% (2015)
, Agriculture products: barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
, Main industries: metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
, Labor force by occupation:
2.689 million (2015 est.)
, Unemployment rate: Unemployment rate:9.3% (2015 est.)
8.7% (2014 est.)
, Inflation rate:-0.2% (2015 est.)
1.2% (2014 est.)
, Official currency: Euro
, Exchange rate to US Dollar and Euro: 1.10 US Dollar, 1 Euro
, Patents per year: Patent applications: 1416
Granted Patents: 931
, GDP dedicated to education: 7.2% of GDP (2013)
, ICT policies in the country (government initiatives or private initiatives): according to Finnish Federation for Communications and Teleinformatics
Finland is one of world's leading countries in information and communications technology (ICT).
, Educational policies in the country (like bilingualism): Children's daycare act stipulates the entitlement of children to day care and the responsibility of municipalities to arrange day care.New learning environments and digital materials to comprehensive schools
Reform of vocational upper secondary education
Acceleration of transition to working life
Access to art and culture will be facilitated
Cooperation between higher education institutions and business life will be strengthened to bring innovations to the market
Youth guarantee towards community guarantee
, Equality policies: The Government Action Plan for Gender Equality for 2016–2019 specifies concrete objectives for the promotion of gender equality and elimination of gender-based discrimination and determines measures for gender mainstreaming in all administrative sectors.
, Tourism industry: 4,6 million tourists in 2015 about 2.5% of the Finnish GDP
, General Background information: Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.
, Freedom of expression (situation): According to https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-press/2015/finland Finland continued to rank among the freest media environments in the world in 2014. Freedom of expression is protected by Article 12 of the constitution and the 2003 Act on the Exercise of Freedom of Expression in Mass Media.
and Monthly income: no minimum wage set by the government, instead, its negotiated by labour unions and employer organizations.