Turkey :flag-tr: (References; (
CIA. (n.d.). The World Factbook: TURKEY.…
, Civil rights: The environment for human rights in Turkey deteriorated in 2015 with the breakdown of the Kurdish peace process, a sharp escalation of violence in the southeast, and a crackdown on media and political opponents of the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP).There were two general elections in 2015. In the June 7 election, the AKP lost its overall majority polling at 41 percent, while the left-leaning pro-Kurdish Peoples’ Democracy Party (HDP) polled 13 percent, for the first time passing the 10 percent threshold for entering parliament.
, 53.7% of the population has access to internet
, Government: parliamentary republic, divided in 81 provinces, governed by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
, Labor force by occupation:
, Official currency: Turkish liras (TRY)
, Total subscriptions of land lines: 11,493,057
, Main imports:machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
, Agriculture products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
, GDP dedicated to education: 2,4%
, GDP: $736 billion
, Main exports: apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
, Houses: in the north is wooden houses from forests, in the ceenter is stone and sun-dried brick houses, in the west is stone houses and in the south is stone and wooden houses
, Transportation: 98 airports, 12,008 km of railways, 385,754 km of roadways, 1,200 km of waterways, 10 ports and 2 terminals
, Background: Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa Kemal, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government.Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession membership talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms have contributed to a quickly growing economy.
, Election system: it has an unusual electoral system, it requires a party to win at least 10% of the national vote to enter parliament
, Location: is located on the geographic coordinates of 39.1667° N latitude and 35.6667° E longitude in Asia, covers 769,632 square kilometers of land and 13,930 square kilometers of water, with a total area of 783,562 square kilometers. Turkey shares land borders with 8 countries: Greece, Bulgaria, Syrian Arab Republic, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia.
, Judicial branch: Judicial power in Turkey is exercised by independent courts and supreme judiciary organs. The judicial section of the Constitution, with the principle of a legal state as its basis, is founded on the independence of the courts and the judges, and the guarantee of judges' rights. Judges rule on the basis of Constitutional provisions, law and jurisprudence.
, Climate: While the coastal regions enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolia plateau experiences a dryer climate with hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall
, Economy overview: Turkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. An emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix.
, Population: The population of turkey is 80,274,604, being 49,9% male and 50,1% female, the birth ratio is 0.016 and the death ratio is 0,0059
, Languages: Turkish(official), Kurdish and other minorities languages
, Religion: 99,8 % Muslims, 0,2% others
, Sanitation facility acces: improved 94,9% of the population and unimproved 5,1% of the population, 100% of the population has access to drinking water
, Education: The school life expectancy is 16 years, the literacy for male is 98,4% and for female is 91,8%
, Public service: 100% of the population has access to public service
, ICT policies: Reaching 30 million broadband subscribers
Providing internet connection for 14 million houses at a speed of 1,000 Mbps
Increasing the sector's share in GDP from 2.9 percent to 8 percent
Becoming one of the top 10 countries in e-transformation
Having 80 percent of the population computer literate
, Educational policie: The proportion of the population below age 15 in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD countries; it is very important to ensure that these young people complete their education and are well prepared for the labour force and further learning. Improvements have been made, but both quality and equity remain a challenge
, Tourism industry: As the 6th most popular tourist destination in the world and well on its way to attracting more than 40 million tourists annually within the next couple of years, Turkey continues to present vast investment opportunities in both the established and newly-developing subsectors of the industry.
, Top universities: Bogaziçi Üniversitesi ranked 9th in the EECA ranking
Bilkent University, Ranked 12th in the EECA ranking
Sabanci University Ranked 13th in the EECA ranking
, Monthly income: 6,933 TRY
, Legislative branch: The duties and authority of the TGNA (Turkish Grand National Assembly) are outlined as follows: to pass, amend and abrogate laws, to supervise the Council of Ministers (Cabinet) and ministers, to give authority to the Council of Ministers (Cabinet) to pass decrees with the power of law, to adopt the budget and final account draft laws, to ratify the printing or minting of currency, to make decisions to declare war, martial law or emergency rule, to approve the signing of international agreements, and to make decisions for declaring general or special amnesties.