A Coggle Diagram about FOREST
(How does deforestation impact the economy?-Deplenishes natural resourcesRapid deforestation often destroys the rainforest faster than it can replenish itself. As a result, many natural resources provided by the rainforests are being depleated. This affects the earnings of industries that rely on the rainforest resources. One example is timber trade. Timber is used to make furniture.As trees are cut down at a faster rate, younger ones cannot grow as quickly to replace them.
, Emergent layer
-rise through the canopy layer
-very tall straight and smooth trunks
, Tropical rainforest
-Thick,luxuriant evergreen forests
-Do not shed all their leaves at the same time
, Undergrowth layer
-plants are small, thin and widely-spaced
, Adaptive features
-tall,straight trunks to obtain maximum amount of sunlight-broad leaves to capture sunlight for photosynthesis-waxy, leathery or hairy leaves to minimise loss of moisture-Fruits and flowers are bright, colourful and strong smelling-buttress roots support heavy weight and are shallow as nutrients are mostly found at the top layer of soil
, Uses for rainforests
-water catchment areas-green lungs of the earth-habitat to flora and fauna-habitat to indigenous people-a source of timber-medical application
, -How does deforestation impact people and the environment?-Loss of biodiversity
-Loss of water catchment areasClearing trees disrupts the water cycle.Trees absorb water through their roots and releases it into the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. The water eventually falls again as rain. When trees are removed, the water cycled is affected, leading to a drier climate and drier soils. Hence, the ground no longer contains and recieves as much water.
, What is deforestation?-cutting down all or most of the trees in a forested areaWhy does deforestation occur?-agriculture activities
, How does deforestation impact people and the environment?--Increase risk of flooding, soil erosion and sedimentationSoil in the forests absorbs rainwater and releases it slowly back into the river. When rain falls, forests intercept the rain and allows it to seep into the ground. Infiltration is the process where rainwater seeps into the ground. When trees are cleared, the ground is left bare. Rainwater falls directly on the ground and flows over the surface more rapidly as surface runoff. This causes flooding in the surrounding areas.
, Canopy layer
-grow closely together
-their crowns form a continuous cover
-blocks 90% of the sunlight
-catches rain as it falls
, How does deforestation impact the society? -social impactBesides losing their homes, the indigenous people are forced to adapt to a new way of living. Traditionally they depend on the forests to find food and shelter The loss of rainforests means they have to find other ways to survive. Displacement form their homes often causes the tribes to disperse and hence their culture loss
, How does deforestation impact people and the environment?--Increase risk of flooding, soil erosion and sedimentationTree roots hold the soil to the ground and keep the ground stable. The moss and leaves that cover the forest floor also serve as a soil cover. On top of that, the rain is also intercepted by the many forest layers before hitting the ground. When the trees are removed, land becomes exposed, hence the water washes the soil away when it rains. Eroded soil is often washed into rivers, increasing the amount of sediments in the river. This affects the water quality and hence aquatic life. Water quality is the condition of water in relation to the amount of impurities. The increase in sediments smother fish eggs resulting in lower hatching rates. It also turns water cloudy preventing light from passing through the river.When sediments enter the sea, coral reefs which require sunlight to grow can be suffocated by sediments. Sediments eventually settle down and accumilate.
, How does deforestation affect the environment? -enhance greehouse effect Greenhouse gases are gasses that trap heat from the earth preventing it from escaping into space hence making the earth warmer however too much can cause global warming.Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for photosynthesis and releases oxygen in exchange.When trees are cut down less trees carbon dioxide can be absorbed hence .........
, Advantages and disadvantages
-reforestation-soil fertility improved
-sustain plant growth in the area
-reduce soil erosion, maintain water cycle, preserve biodiversity-expensive and time-consuming
-depends on the availability of native plants
, How to manage deforestation
-protection of forested areas
, Advantages and disadvantages-public education-change people's mindset, increase awareness and appreciation of our forests this leads to action and participation from community-environmental awareness into personal behaviour and action is difficullt.
-difficult in countries with low literacy rates
-many of the countries rely on the rainforests to obtain income from exports derived from the rainforests
, Advantages and disadvantagesProtection of forested areas-important in conserving indigenous ecosystem and native biodiversity
-They are useful for educational and recreational purposes
-help to reduce deforestation-still vulnerable to human impact
-may give in to corruption and allow loggers and miners to illegally enter the protected forest
-not enough forest rangers hence families illegally settle in the protected areas
and Advantages and disadvantages-controlled logging-decrease in deforestation
-stopped several illegal loggers-expensive and time-consuming
-depends on availability of native plants
(Which locations in the world are facing water shortage?
-Africa and AsiaHow does water shortage impact people and countries?
-Increased cost of production
-reduce agriculture yields
-Increase difficulty in collecting water
, Uses of water-Domestic (Consumption,hygiene and amenity)
-Economic (agriculture) (industrial)
, The hydrological cycle1.Heat from the sun causes the water from water bodies and the surface layer of soil to evaporate into water vapour. Plants also give out water vapour through their leaves this process is called transpiration.2.As the water vapour rises into the atmosphere when the water vapour cools, they condense into water droplets.3.The water droplets gather together to form clouds When more water droplets gather together, the clouds get too heavy and the water falls back onto the earth this is called precipitation, this is can come in a form of rain or snow.4.Some water may seep into the to soil this is called infiltration What that infiltrates deep into the ground that is contained in the ground or underlying rocks become groundwater.5.The rest of the water that is not absorbed flows on the earth's surfaces down hills and mountain into lakes and rivers are known as surface runoff.
-Treats used water into water, purer than tap water used to wafer fabrication plants,electronic factories and power plants and meets 30% of our water demand. There are 4 steps for NEWater treatment, conventional water treatment where used water is treated to globally recognised standards, microfiltration where large particles are removed from the water, reverse osmosis where pressure is applied to the water to go through a thin membrane where only water molecules can pass through, lastly the ultraviolet disinfection where the remaining micro-organisms are removed.-not dependent on rainfall
-it is ultra pure usable in fabrication industries.-expensive to produce
-public may not accept this technology due to lack of knowledge about the treatment process
, What is water shortage?
--the hydrological cycle
-Uses of water
, Domestic UsesConsumption -drinking/cooking
Hygiene -bathing/flushing the toilet
Amenity -washing car/watering plantsEconomic UsesAgriculture- as the population grows rapidly, more water is needed to grow more crops to feed people.Where rainfall is low or irregular more water is used to grow crops, hence irrigation is used. Irrigation is water from water bodies sprayed onto crops thus crops will not grow in dry areas.Industrial- as large amounts of water is used for the manufacturing, maintenance, cleaning the machinery and cooling of generators. A large amount of water is also lost through evaporation, absorption and leaks.
, What is a water footprint?
-The total volume of water used to produce the goods and services for a person in a year
, Why does water shortage occur?Demand factors
-population growth(ever-increasing world population)
-affluence(having wealth and being able to live comfortably)Supply factors
-Seasonal rainfall (amount of rainfall affects supply of fresh water)
-Water pollution(water quality will drop, unsuitable for people and aquatic life. Some industries have inadequate waste treatment facilities and dump their garbage directly into the water. Towns also discharge waste in the water thus the water turned brown)
, Imported water
-does not require land thus frees land for other uses
cheaper source of water compared to desalination and NEWater-may not be enough to meet demands
-agreements eventually expire and there are no guarantees for future agreements
, Pricing of water
-This is when an additional amount of money is charged based on total water consumption this encourages people to reduce their water consumption because the more water you use the higher the tax rates.Advantages
-Water pricing allows people to be more mindful of their water consumption
-Water pricing reflects the cost of producing clean water hence people can appreciate the value of clean water.Disadvantages
-For industries that use a lot of water, the water pricing increases the total cost of their production which may be passed on to consumers.
-It may not affect those who can afford the higher price thus continue to use as mush water as they want.
, Domestic impact
-Increase difficulty in collecting water
They lack access to safe drinking water, 90% of water is used for agriculture leaving little for domestic use. Drinking unclean water-borne diseases.-Water rationing
People have to queue up to collect water for their daily use.Economic impact
-Increase cost of industrial production
It refers to the cost of producing and manufacturing goods. The power industry relies heavily on water to cool parts of the generators, some power plants in Europe reduce their power output. The cut in power production causes an increase in price for power and affects the costs of production in other industries.Political impact
-Conflict over water supply
Conflicts can arise over water resources when there is not enough water to go around for example, conflicts between farmers and factories over the use of water in a lake also dams that generate hydropower will decrease the flow of water downstream hence affecting the livelihood of many people who rely on the river downstream for example fishermen and farmers.
, How to avoid water shortage?Reduce water consumption
-Pricing of water
-Public educationIncrease in water supply
-Local catchment areas
-Desalinated waterConserve through protecting water resources
-Protection of water resources
, Public education
-This educates the public on water conservation and water efficient appliances this allows consumers to make informed choices when buying household products like washing machines this also helps the public be more aware of reducing water consumption by using water efficient products, or by using a water saving kit which includes thimbles that help control the rate of water flow.-Teaches many people about the importance of water
-It has the potential to make a lasting positive change in people's use of water -time-consuming
-depends if people want to change their behaviour
, Local catchment areas
-it maximises the amount of rainfall it can harvest and provides us with almost half of our water needs
Examples:Kranji,Macritchie,Pandan,Bedok-take advantage of Singapore's high rainfall
-can be used as recreational places-less land available for other uses
-when there is little rainfall/drought local catchment areas are ineffective
, Desalinated water
-it removes dissolved salts into the water-independent of rainfall
-surrounded by limitless amount of seawater -very expensive
-large amounts of chemicals and salt solutions and might pollute the oceans if released there.
and Protection of water resources
-Keeping drains and canals in our catchment areas clean,encourages the public to care for our waterways by adopting a waterway and taking care of it by conducting clean-ups and monitoring our cleanliness however this can only be done if the community values water this helps keep costs of treatment on water low and reservoirs and rivers clean.-cost-effective method
-everyone in turn gets to enjoy a clean and healthy environment-depends on effective public education
-depends on cooperation of everybody
) and ENERGY
(Social impact of rising energy costs
-Frequent interruption to electricity supply
This might occur due to an unexpected power trip by making electricity unavailable during certain parts of the day energy consumption is reduced however it might be inconvenient for homes and businesses long period blackouts also affect health and safety of people.Increase cost of living
-The cost of living refers the to the price of goods and services that must be paid in order to maintain a certain standard of living
, Environmental problems
2.decline in the diversity of fish and other aquatic life
- leads to deforestation of more than 500 mountain tops
-Burning these fuels emit greenhouse gases and pollute the air contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effectCoal mining destroys the land and most of the topsoil and vegetation is removed, this destroys the natural habitat for flora and fauna. Groundwater may also be polluted by the waste water from mines.Despite the environmental problems associated with using fossil fuels, many countries continue to rely on fossil fuels for energy. One reason is that the coal and oil industry provides jobs for people. Another reason is that fossil fuels are cheaper than alternative sources of energy. Some countries may also lack the facilities to use alternative energy sources and therefore can only continue to use fossil fuels.Oil spills destroy the environment when oil pipes leak. Oil can be spilled when an offshore oil rig explodes or is damaged, this kills many marine creatures because the oil prevents oxygen from entering the water.
- in the largest oil spill more than 7000 animals were killed including birds, turtles and dolphins 4 months after the oil spill and fishing-dependent industries were predicted to lose more than 8.7 billion dollars over the next seven years.
, Why do energy consumption differ?
- Before industrial growth agriculture was the way of life
2.During industrial growth advanced farming techniques help increase production of food and raw materials and reduce the number of farmers
3.hence moved to towns to work in factories
4.materials from the farm are sent to factories to be processed into other products
5.more factories are set up to manufacture goods hence more coal is needed to power the machines in the factories
6.Industries have also been set up in the tertiary sector where the products are sold
, , Why do energy consumption differ
-When people are wealthy and are able to live more comfortably they are able to consume more goods and services the more developed the countries are the higher the demand for good and services to sustain the economy and as a lifestyle the higher consumption of goods in these countries taps on energy sources such as coal and oil which produce carbon dioxide when their burnt hence have a bigger carbon footprintA carbon footprint it the total amount of greenhouse gases produced from human activities
, Energy crisis
When demand for energy cannot be met, an energy crisis hence an increase in energy costs and people will find it harder to gain access to energy supply. Depletion of fossil fuel reserves
Fossil fuels are non-renewable as they take a very long time to form of oil fuels oil is the main energy source however oil wells are running dry. The cost of having to drill deeper into the ground is to get oil makes it unprofitable hence oil wells are closing down governments also restricts the amount of oil produced to protect reserves from being totally depleted.
, Domestic Use
-67% of world's electricity from fossil fuels
-synthetic rubbers and fibresIndustrial Use
-Make steel (coal used to make coke which +iron ore+ limestone =iron
, Where are the fossil fuel reserves found?
Coal is mainly found in North America
Oil and natural gas are found in the Middle EastWhy are most fossil fuel reserves found near oceans?Uses of fossil fuels
-quicker transportation of materials(steamships/trains)Oil
-(took over coal in other things)
-power motor vehicles Natural gas
-took over coal in other things)
, Type of rocks
-Sedimentary rock (Shale)
-Igneous rock (Granite)
-Metamorphic rock (Gneiss)
, Energy resources
Early sources of energy
-Animals (transport heavy loads)
-Firewood (for cooking)
-Wind power (move large objects)Fossil fuels
-Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of plant and animals that lived million of years ago when brunt they produce a large amount of energy.Types of fossil fuels
-Coal (mostly made of carbon)-Oil (often found between rocks and the earth's surface in pits or lakes, by refining the oil we get diesel,fuel,gasoline,and kerosene)-Natural gas ( mostly made of methane and is highly flammable when producing it less carbon dioxide is produced than when producing oil making it a cleaner source of energy)Formation of coal
-The remains of the vegetation were buried deeper and compressed by more sediments sedimentary rock is formed in the process. Increase heating and pressure for a long time transforms swamp vegetation into coalFormation of oil and natural gas
-The marine plants and animals were buried deeper and compressed by more sediments sedimentary rock is formed is formed in the process. Increase heating and pressure for a long time transforms marine plants and animals into oil and natuarl gas.
and What is an energy crisis?
-When the demand for energy cannot be met an energy crisis will occurWhat are energy resources?
-anything that can be used to do work, something that can produce heat, moves objects or produce electricity there are 2 types of resources, renewable and non-renewableTypes of energy resources
-Renewable (can be used without being depleted and are restored naturally)
-Non-renewable (limited to quantity)