CHAPTER 6 DEVELOPMENTAL PSTCHOLOGY
A Coggle Diagram about Infancy
- Sensory Development
It was once believed that a neonate (new born) was an empty-headed, passive organism that was unable to perceive. Simply ate, drank, slept, etc. but more recently, the consensus is that infancy is an active time of exploration and acquiring information through primitive but effective means (sigh, hearing, etc.). In term of visual perception, recent research has shown that neonates are more advanced visually than once believed. Two examples of visual perception are:
- Visual cliff – A researcher places a checkered cloth over a table or other raised surface that extend over the table, floor, everything around. Then, a piece of clear plastic glass is placed on the raised surface so that it extends out from the surface. This gives the appearance, when looking from the top of the clear material, that there is a cliff. A child is placed on the table/surface and the mother stands at the end of clear plastic or glass, and calls for the child to crawl to her. If the child simply crawls to her, over the edge of the table on the plastic, then the child has not yet developed depth perception. If the child stops at the edge of the table and looks down, but refuses to crawl to the mother, than it can be inferred that the child does have depth perception. Depth perception is usually exhibited between 6-14 months. At that point, children are less likely to crawl over the edge of the table.
- Preference for visual stimuli – Frantz (1961) showed infants different pictures of shapes that, to varying degrees, represented a human face. Some of the pictures just looked like a bunch of unrelated images, while at the other end, some looked like a human face. He found that up to 40% of fixation time was on human face, 20% on complex non-face, 10% on solid colour stimuli. Reasons - Complex images provide more stimulation; humans may be biologically programmed to keep contact with care givers for survival.
- Behavioural/Motor Development
Includes reflexes such as rooting, Moro, etc. The average neonate spends 6-7% of waking time crying. Early cries are reflex to discomfort; biological method of communication with care-givers. Many different types of crying – research show that adults (not just parents) can identify types of cries (pain, anger, etc.).
- Cognitive Development
The infant is in the sensorimotor stage according to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. The child moves from pure reflexive actions to coordination of sensations and motor movements.
- Attachment is the process of forming close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infant and care givers. It indicates the emotional and social development of the infant. Some emotional and social developmental changes which occur due to attachment are “social smile” (about 2 months), “separation anxiety” (6 – 9 months), and “stranger anxiety” (6 – 10 months). These anxieties peak around 14 months and gradually decline by about age 2.
and A. Securely attached
B. Insecurely attached
- Enjoy physical contact with parents and others
- Be comfortable in exploring different environments
- Be likely to be more intelligent
- Be more psychologically healthy as a child
- Be more responsive to its environment
- Cling excessively to the parent
- Become extremely upset when the parent leaves the child or a stranger appears in
the child’s environment
- Be less likely to freely explore its environment and, hence
- Be somewhat less intelligent
), Factors Influencing Development
At approximately age 4-5, children become less egocentric and begin to identify with parents. Identification is a process of adopting the attitudes, values and behaviours of their parents. In addition, children start to imitate same-sex parent (act like daddy). During this time, children also begin to develop their self-concept factors like name, age, where you live, friends, etc. For example, during this time, ask a child who they are, and you may get responses that include “I am a kid”, “I am a kid with
lots of friends”, and “I am a kid with lots of friends who lives in Kuala Lumpur”.
- Early social influences
At approximately age 6-10, children begin to expand their social contacts beyond family and friends. They may become members of clubs or groups at school, play on sports teams, etc. Also, they begin to experience pressure from peers and observe how others act and how they should act. This is the time during which that drive to be like others begins to pick up steam (bring a yoyo to school because everyone else has one). They need to feel accepted by peers to develop confidence.
- Is the study if how individuals become more advanced & effective as they age & focuses on the process of becoming (how ppl become who & what they are) as opposed to being (the current state of "who & what ppl are").
- Development Is a sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from the conception to death.
( between the ages of approximately 11 -22. There is usually some debate about the exact age range, but most agree that adolescence is correlated with the onset of puberty, the process of
maturation of the reproductive organs. Changes during adolescence include:
- Rapid Physical Changes – Often leads to self-image concerns. More than at other developmental stages, adolescents are concerned (often overwhelmingly so) with fitting in with others, looking a certain way, appearing “pretty” or “good looking”, etc. In addition, the sense of identity is sometimes based on physical appearance at this stage of life.
- Cognitive Changes – The use of introspection and abstract reasoning to consider complex ideas and hypotheses can cause many, many problems. For example, “What happens if I don’t look good? Are they going to dislike me because I am ugly?”
- Career Concerns – Desire to know who they will become often arises here, this is related to identity.
(There is stability of major physical milestones during adulthood. Adulthood is the time of taking on adult responsibilities in work and social relationships. Establishing a career, finding a partner, maintaining a marriage, parenthood, retirement are just some of adjustments made during adulthood. Thus, development doesn’t stop when one becomes an adult, but it continues throughout the lifespan. Physically, young adults continue to strengthen and grow but as one passes early adulthood, there is a gradual decline of the physical form. Cognitive abilities may be stable, may decline or it may grow with age.Successful old age is associated with the satisfaction of a life well-lived. Those who see meaning in their lives when considered as a whole continue to live a satisfying existence. Staying engaged in life’s activities and whether one believes the myths about old age are associated with happy aging.
), Theories Dev
(Ainsworth’s Theory of Attachment
), Diff types of changes -
- Physical dev - Motor skills, bone structure, weight, etc
- Cognitive dev - thought patterns & skills, problem solving, etc
- Social Dev - Emotional changes, personality, etc.
- Moral Dev - Concerns hot one learns to do the "right" thing in society.
, Stage of Development
- Prenatal / Neonatal Development (the new born's first 2 weeks
- Infancy From 2 sweeks - 2 yrs
- Childhood - early childthood (2-7 yrs); -middle (7-11 yrs) & late childhood (11-12 yrs)
- Adolescent - 12-18 yrs
- Adulthood - Early adulthood 18-35 yrs; middle 35-55 yrs; late adulthood 55-65 yrs
- Old age 65 and above
, Dev psychologist does -
- Identify life-long patterns of continuitty & change in behaviour.
- Examines past experiences & influences in order to understand current behaviour.
- Predict future behaviours by using current behaviours. "Who you are" is assumed to be a function of past experiences.
- Prenatal Development
- Germinal stage covers first 2 weeks, when the zygote is just a ball of cells.
- Embryonic stage is from 2-8 weeks. The embryo looks vaguely human and its heart starts to beat.
- Foetal stage covers from 8 weeks to birth, when systems are developing to allow it to survive outside the uterus. The foetus becomes viable at 6 months or 80 days (now 22-23 weeks). At that time, it weighs about one kilogram. Emotional and social development of the neonate can be seen through five emotional states. These are surprise, happiness, discomfort, distress, and interest. Although the prenatal phase is a relatively short period in contrast to the entire human life span, the development that occurs during this stage can have life-long effect. One major influence in prenatal development is maternal health, some of which are manifested as below:
1) Maternal Drug Taking
a) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Fetal Alcohol Syndrome affects 1 out of every 750 children born in the U.S. A 1991 study found that mothers who consumed just 1 alcoholic beverage a day during pregnancy (and assuming these a drinks contain moderate alcohol levels per drink), had children who scored lower on IQ test at age 4 than children whose mothers did not drink. Even when environmental factors were accounted for, IQ scores were still lower.
b) Heroin and other substance – In addition to lower birth weight, ingesting drugs during pregnancy can also lead to a baby addicted to substance.
2) Maternal smoking has immediate effects such as hindering oxygenation of blood to a baby, as well as long-term effects like deficits in growth and learning activities.
3) Obstetrical Medication – Although prescribed by a doctor, studies have found that pain medication given during labour (in larger doses) have been correlated with sluggish, less animated infant behaviour during the first few weeks of life. This has a common effect of hindering the parent-infant bond. In addition, these children have been found to have poor coordination and cognitive deficits up to a year old.
4) Maternal Emotional Scale is often overlooked. Guilt, anxiety, and depression, during pregnancy are mediated by hormonal reactions which pass through the placenta to the baby. Thus, a rise in adrenaline in mom also occurs in baby. This can be damaging when prolonged, but temporary reactions are not as damaging. Highly emotional mothers during pregnancy have been linked with highly active, irritable infant behaviours, as well as infants who are abnormal sleepers and eaters. Finally, emotionality in mothers has been correlated with miscarriages (greater emotionality is positively correlated with incidences of miscarriage).
5) Maternal Age – Both Down’s Syndrome and infant mortality increase with mother’s age. Women age 40 have a 1 /100 chance of giving birth to a child with Down’s Syndrome. Women age 50 have a 1/10 chance! Mortality rate is also higher in young mothers (meaning adolescents). This is possibly due to body’s inability to handle pregnancy before a certain developmental level.
6) Nutrition – This has become popular in more recent years, especially the notion of how much weight to gain during pregnancy. Today, it is more common for a doctor to recommend gaining between 25 and 30 pounds as opposed to 15-18 that was common just a few years ago.
7) Environmental Factors such as radiation that can occur from jobs (X-ray technicians, flight attendants) and lead to low birth-weight, stillborns, birth effects, etc. This is not only for mothers-men exposed to radiation also may contribute to prenatal health problems like chromosomal alterations and mental retardation.