Spelling Rules related to suffixes
A Coggle Diagram about ing/ ed/ er/ est/ en (words of more than one syllable if the last syllable of a word is stressed and ends with one consonant letter which has just one vowel letter before it, the final consonant letter is doubled before any ending beginning with a vowel letter is added e.g. forget > forgetting, prefer > preferred, forgot > forgotten, if the word ends with two consonant letters the ending is just added on e.g. buzz > buzzer, fall > falling, wall > walled, if the word ends with a y, you change the y for an i e.g. copy > copier and words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter you repeat the last letter e.g. fat > fattest, hum > humming, pat > patted), tion/ sion/ ssion/ cian, ous ( words ending with our is changed to or before the ending ous is added e.g. humour > humorous, glamour > glamorous, vigour > vigorous , if the word ends with ge then the word must stay the same when adding the suffix ous e.g. courage > courageous, outrage > outrageous and if there is an i sound at the end of the word it is usually spelled with an i but sometimes it can also be spelled with an e e.g. serious, curious, hideous, courteous), ment/ ful/ ness/ less/ ly, cious/ tious (If the root word ends in ce, the sound is usually spelt as c – e.g. grace > gracious, space > spacious, malice > malicious.
Exception: anxious. and if the root word end in anything but ce it is spelt as tious e.g. fiction > fictitious, infect > infectious), ant / ancy/ ent/ ency (ent and ency are used after soft c's , soft g's and qu e.g. innocent, divergence, frequent and any and ancy are related to words with a /æ/ or /eɪ/ sound in the right position; –ation endings are often a clue e.g. observant, observance, (observation), hesitant, hesitancy (hesitation),
tolerant, tolerance, (toleration)), ible/ ibly/ able/ ably and s/es (If the word has an additional beat/ syllable you add es e.g. match > matches)