Chapter 2 Notes ( (Enzymes-
active site- is the region of an enzyme…
Chapter 2 Notes
, ( (Buffers- Weak Acid and Conjugate Bases or Weak base and Conjugate acid Prevents Change in pH.
)), Denaturing- when heated up to a certain point, an enzyme can denature and never work properly again
, This is Democritus' atomic theory exactly1.All matter consists of invisible particles called atoms.
- Atoms are indestructible.
- Atoms are solid but invisible.
- Atoms are homogenous.
- Atoms differ in size, shape, mass, position, and arrangement.
->Solids are made of small, pointy atoms.
->Liquids are made of large, round atoms.
->Oils are made of very fine, small atoms that can easily slip past each other.
, Van Der Waals- allows lizards to climb on walls
Hydrogen Bonding- attractive force between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule.
, , Ionic Bonds are when a Metal and a Non Metal share, a bond in which the Metal donates an electron to the non metalCovalent Bonds- share electrons, and are when Non Metals are togetherChemical Compound- combination of 2 Elements w/ different chemical and physical properties than the element that forms itA Molecule is a CC with only 1 Element
, Atoms are the basic unit of matterThey have a Proton +1
Electron -1 Protons and Neutrons Make up the Atomic Mass, while Protons and Electrons make up the charge
Isotopes have the Same # of Atomic #, but different Atomic Mass.Valence Electrons- are the electrons in the outer shell
, , Suspension- wont evenly mix
Solution- evenly mix Carbohydrates have a monosaacharide monomer with a glycosidic linkage this macromolecule provide us with EnergyProteins have amino acids monomers with a peptide bond, which help cellular linkageLipids have a fatty acids and glycerol monomer with an ester bond these help to store energy and barriersNucleic Acids have nucleotides as a monomer with a Phosphodiester bond, these help to store informationCarbohydrates- usually end in -oseDNA- DeoxyRNA- RiboseDehydration Synthesis- Bonds are formed through the removal of water.Hydrolysis- Bonds are broken through the addition of waterNucleotides have three parts: 1) a five carbon ribose sugar, 2) a phosphate molecule and 3) one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine or uracil.
, ACIDS AND BASES- Acids taste sour are poisonous
Change litmus paper redAcids are compounds that give off their hydrogen ions (HCl ---- H + ClBases taste bitter or are poisonous
Change ltimus paper blueBases are compounds that give off their hydroxide ions (OH-) KOH ---- K + OHACIDS DONATE HYDROGENS
BASES ACCEPT THE HYDROGENConjugate Acids- bases with a hdrogenConjugate Base- Acid loses a hydrogenStrong Acids will dissociate (break apart) to form a positive H+ and a negative ionStrong Base will dissociate ( break apart) to form a positve ion and a negative hydroxidepH is a measure of acidic or basic solution pH scale is from 0 to 14 closes to 7 is neutral
, , , , , Water Polarity
Water's polarity is responsible for many of its properties including its attractiveness to other molecules.The difference in electronegativities between oxygen and hydrogen atoms creates partial negative and positive charges, respectively, on the atoms.Water molecules attract or are attracted to other polar molecules.Molecules that do not dissolve in water are known as hydrophobic (water fearing) molecules.Source: Boundless. “Water’s Polarity.”
Lipids- fat oil
Nucleic Acids- almost everythingReagent-
Nucleic Acid- iodine
Lipids- Sudan 4
, To calculate ph
pH= -log(H+)To calculate pOH
pH + pOH= 14To find the H ion use10^--pHTO find OH10^-pOH
, Arthenius H+ or H30+ produces OH- producerBronsted Lowry- Proton (H+) doner proton (H+)Lewis electron pair acceptor e- pair doner