A Coggle Diagram about Primary sources (Some materials might be considered primary sources for one topic but not for another. For example, a newspaper article about D-Day (which was June 6, 1944) written in June 1944 was likely written by a participant or eyewitness and would be a primary source; an article about D-Day written in June 2001 probably was not written by an eyewitness or participant and would not be a primary source., In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, a document, a recording, or other source of information that was created at the time under study. , Similarly, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, delivered soon after the 1863 battle, is a primary source for the Civil War, but a speech given on the 100th anniversary of the battle of Gettysburg in 1963 is not a primary source for the Civil War. If, however, the topic was how Americans commemorate the Civil War, then the 100th anniversary speech would be a primary source for that topic. If there's any doubt about whether a source should be listed as primary or secondary, you should explain in your annotated bibliography why you chose to categorize it as you did. and Students should consider the following locations when looking for primary source material:
Public and College Libraries
Local and State Historical Societies
Town and County Historians
Town Hall Records
Town Planning Offices
Community Groups, such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Daughters of the American Revolution, Ethnic Organizations, etc.
Community Residents), Secondary Sources (What are secondary sources? Secondary sources are works of synthesis and interpretation based upon primary sources and the work of other authors. They may take a variety of forms. The authors of secondary sources develop their interpretations and narratives of events based on primary sources, that is, documents and other evidence created by participants or eyewitnesses. Frequently, they also take advantage of the work of other historians by using other secondary sources. For example, the author of the history textbook which you use in school probably did not use too many primary sources. Instead, textbook authors usually rely on secondary sources written by other historians. Given the wide range of topics covered by a typical textbook, textbook authors could not possibly find and use all the relevant primary sources themselves., REFERENCE BOOKS: Reference books are good starting points for basic information about your topic, but they are only that. They should not be included in your bibliography. Look for general information in: encyclopedias, special historical dictionaries, and historical atlases. General encyclopedias such as World Book can provide you with basic information, while subject encyclopedias such as the Encyclopedia of the North American Colonies provide a bit more detailed information. Encyclopedia articles often have bibliographies which can direct you to some of the major secondary sources for a topic., HISTORY TEXTBOOKS: Yes, really! Your textbook can be a great place to get ideas for topics and find out about the general context of your topic. If you're interested in the invention of the telescope as it revolutionized astronomy, first do some background reading on the scientific revolution as a whole, perhaps in a general textbook on European history. This will help you understand how your topic fits in with the "big picture." and JOURNAL ARTICLES: Historians don't always write books. Smaller essays on specific topics can be found in scholarly journals. These are periodicals similar to magazines, only they are specifically focused on history topics. Academic journals can usually be found at college and university libraries, and there are often indexes to help you find an article on a specific topic. Or just peruse some of these journals to see what kinds of questions professional historians are asking about your topic.), Historical thinking and questioning, Making Inferences (When you are using sources- and these could be written or visual; primary or secondary- you have to ask a series of questions before you accept what the source tells you. and Look at the Ancient Greek pot. It as made by an Ancient Greek potter, so it is a primary source. What does this one artefacts tell us about the ancient Greeks? First, it tells us the ancient Greeks had at least some potters who were very good at making and decorating pots. This is making an inference from the source. An inference is an act or process of reaching a conclusion about something from known facts or evidence. These sentences show a few possible inferences that could be made from the source.) and How do Historians Construct Knowledgeof the Past